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NEET Biology Digestion and Absorption

Digestion and Absorption PDF Notes, Important Questions and Synopsis

SYNOPSIS

  • Conversion of complex food substances to simple absorbable substances is called digestion.

  • Human Digestive System



  • Summary of Chemical Digestion


    Part of the Alimentary Canal

    Digestive Juices/Enzymes

    Source of Secretion

    Food Digested End-product
    1. Mouth

    Saliva

    Salivary amylase

    Salivary glands

    Polysaccharides (Starch)

    Disaccharides (Maltose)

    1. Oesophagus

    -

    -

    -

    -

    1. Stomach

    Gastric juice

    HCl

    Gastric glands

    -

    • Converts pepsinogen and prorennin to the corresponding active forms pepsin and rennin

    • Provides an acidic environment

    • Kills bacteria in food

    Pepsin

    Gastric glands

    Proteins

    Proteoses, peptones

    Rennin (found in infants and young children)

    Gastric glands Casein Proteoses, peptones

    Gastric lipase

    Gastric glands

    Fats (emulsification)

    Fatty acids and glycerol


    Small Intestine (Duodenum)

    Bile

    Bile (bilirubin + biliverdin + cholesterol + phospholipids + bile salts)

    No enzymes

    Liver (stored in the gall bladder)

    Fats

    Emulsifies fats into micelles

    Pancreatic juice

    Trypsin, chymotrypsin, carboxypeptidase

    Pancreas Proteins, peptones, proteoses Dipeptides

    Amylase

    Pancreas Polysaccharides Disaccharides

    Lipase

    Pancreas

    Fats Diglycerides, monoglycerides

    Nucleases

     Pancreas  Nucleic acids  Nucleotides

    Succus entericus

     Disaccharidases 

    (Example: Maltase)

    Intestinal glands

    Disaccharides

    (Example: Maltose)

    Monosaccharides

    (Example: Glucose)

    Dipeptidases

    Intestinal glands

    Dipeptides

    Amino acids

    Lipases

    Intestinal glands

    Monoglycerides Fatty acids and glycerol

    Nucleases

    Intestinal glands

    Nucleotides

    Nucleosides

    Nucleases

    Intestinal glands Nucleosides Sugars and nitrogenous bases