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NEET Biology Biotechnology and its Applications

Biotechnology and Its Applications PDF Notes, Important Questions and Synopsis

           SYNOPSIS

 

  • Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are organisms in which foreign genes have been introduced through genetic engineering.
  • Uses of Genetically Modified Plants

  • Cry proteins are toxic proteins secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis in the crystal form during a particular phase of their growth.
  • Genetically engineered insulin: In 1983, Eli Lilly, an American company, first prepared two DNA sequences corresponding to the A and B chains of human insulin and introduced them in plasmids of Escherichia coli to produce insulin chains. Chains A and B were produced separately, extracted and combined by creating disulphide bonds to form human insulin or humulin.
  • Gene therapy is the technique of genetic engineering to replace ‘a faulty gene’ by a normal healthy functional gene in humans. For example, ADA deficiency can be treated with gene therapy.

  • Applications of Biotechnology in the Field of Medicine

  • ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a simple and versatile technique used for screening HIV and is based on the principle of antigen–antibody interaction. 

  • Animals that have had their DNA manipulated to possess and express an extra (foreign) gene are known as transgenic animals.

  • Benefits of Transgenic Animals:

  • GEAC (Genetical Engineering Approval Committee) has been set up to make decisions regarding the validity of GM research and the safety of introducing GM-organisms for public services.

  • Bioethics is a set of standards used to regulate our activities in relation to the biological world.

  • nauthorised use of bioresources and traditional knowledge related to bioresources for commercial benefits is called biopiracy.