Class 8 NCERT Solutions Civics Chapter 8 - Law and Social Justice
Law and Social Justice Exercise 111
As the answers may vary, please attempt this question on your own with the help of your subject teacher or elders.
Foreign companies gain a lot of advantages by setting up production in India. These are
- Cheap labour, i.e. wages the companies pay in developed countries is far more than wages they pay in developing countries.
- For lower pay, companies can get additional hours of work.
- The companies can save costs and earn higher profits.
- Companies cut costs by including lower working conditions that consist of lower safety measures.
- Companies take advantage of the workers’ vulnerability because one worker can easily replace another.
- Because of much unemployment, many workers are willing to work in unsafe conditions in return for a wage. Hence, this also helps them in cutting costs.
No, the victims of the Bhopal gas tragedy did not get justice. The reasons are
- There continues to be chronic health problems today.
- Cancer, blindness, respiratory difficulties, immune and neurological disorders, female reproductive disorders as well as birth defects among children born to affected women are still persistent.
- Cases against the guilty are still pending in courts.
- The Chairman of Union Carbide is still at large, instead of being prosecuted.
- Union Carbide has paid only a measly $470 million for this catastrophe, instead of $3 billion asked.
- Safe drinking water for healthcare facilities and jobs for people are still lacking.
Law enforcement is referred to as a subsystem of society that promotes adherence to the law by discovering and punishing persons who violate the rules and norms governing that society.
The government is responsible for the enforcement of law.
Enforcement is important because the rights of the citizens have to be protected. It also becomes more necessary to have stronger laws because more Indian and foreign industries are being set up. In addition, it is very important to safeguard our environment.
Laws ensure that markets work in a fair manner by protecting the people from unfair practises. The two examples are
- Child Labour Prevention Act: This law states that no child below the age of 14 years shall be employed to work in any factory or mine or engage in any other hazardous employment.
- Right against Exploitation: This law states that no one can be forced to work for low wages or under bondage.
As the answers may vary, please attempt this question on your own in the classroom with the help of your subject teacher.
The various roles of the government we have read in this unit are
- Makes law on minimum wages.
- Makes law on protecting the interests of producers and consumers in the market.
- Providing public facilities such as water supply, sanitation, healthcare services etc.
- Enacting laws against child labour.
- Enforcing laws regarding adequate safety measures for workers.
- Upholding laws regarding safeguarding of the environment.
The answers may vary. A sample answer is provided.
The sources of environmental pollution:
Air: Vehicles, industries, power stations
Water: Chemicals, latrines, industries throwing wastes
Soil: Garbage disposal, industrial effluents
Steps taken to reduce pollution are
- Banning the use of dangerous and unsafe substances.
- Safe disposal of waste materials.
- Limited use of non-renewable resources.
- Increasing the use of renewable resources.
- Recycling of used materials.
- Curative measures to improve the quality of degraded materials.
- The environment in earlier days was treated as a 'free entity'.
- Industries polluted the air and water without any restrictions.
- No precaution was taken to keep the environment clean.
- The government paid no attention to safeguard the environment.
However, with times, the perception has changed for good. The Indian government introduced new laws to protect the environment. The government also holds the polluter responsible for damaging the environment. Several judgements have upheld the right that a healthy environment is intrinsic to the Fundamental Right to Life.
The cartoonist R. K. Laxman is trying to show the hypocrisy shown by people. The image shows a mother complaining about how the school is making her child suffer by carrying heavy books. However, she herself has hired a small boy as a servant to carry those heavy books, which according to her is normal.
The image also shows how we ourselves are responsible for an increase in child labour and are insensitive to the needs of others.
It relates to the 2006 law on Child Labour Prevention Act mentioned on page 123, as this law has banned children less than 14 years of age from working as domestic servants or as workers in dhabas, restaurants, tea shops, homes etc.
Law and Social Justice Exercise 112
As the answers may vary, please attempt this question on your own with the help of your subject teacher.