NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Chapter 4(B) - Heroes of the Environment

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Chapter 4(B) - Heroes of the Environment Exercise 133

Solution 2

Adverse environmental effects of tourism and adventure sports.

· Personal conquests seem to be more important than preserving the integrity of a natural site.

· Water sports and mountaineering expeditions have caused to the nature and fauna residing the areas.

· Usage of renewable sources of energy should be encouraged.

Ways to prevent it

· Charge high climbing fees

· Ban plastic and other non-renewable items.

· Limit the number of travelers.

Solution 3(1)

(c)Simple Present

Solution 3(2)

(a) At the beginning of a sentence or a clause

Solution 3(3)

(b) Mixed length

Solution 3(4)

(a) So that the reader can understand more easily

Solution 3(5)

(b) The order in which the instructions have to be carried out

Solution 3(6)

(b) Yes

Chapter 4(B) - Heroes of the Environment Exercise 142

Solution 6(1)

Need to rehabilitate the Environment

  • Things that came from the environment are clean drinking water for food, firewood for energy, material for building and fodder for the animals
  • People did not get them because the environment was degraded. Deforestation of mountains caused shortage of water and change in rainfall patterns.
  • Therefore it became important to have a government that accounts to the needs of people in rural areas, that protects them, that protects their interests, that is concerned about their lives.

Protecting forested mountains

  • Source of water and rain
  • Deforestation leads to shortage of water and change of rainfall patterns; people are not able to get food and water.
  • Hence government, in order for people to have good environment that can sustain their livelihoods, must account to them, that protects them, that protects their interests, that is concerned about their lives.

Good Management of Natural Resources

  • Degraded environment results in wars as it is not able to support the communities so they fight over the little that is left.
  • It leads to discontent and when this discontent is strong enough it leads to conflicts among various communities.

· Good management of natural resources means equitable distribution of resources among various communities without any discrimination due to various physical factors.

· It is essential for maintaining peace and to have a sustainable growth and development.

· Good management is possible only when we have democratic space, respect for human beings, respect for human rights, giving other people dignity.

Solution 6(2)

Three legs of development, as mentioned by Wangari, are described as follows:

· One leg is peace;

· The other leg is good governance; and

· The third leg is sustainable management of resources

This can be explained by the analogy of a stool. The basin of the stool, that is, development, is not possible without the above three. As we have allowed few (those in power), to acquire the maximum of resources, we have indulged ourselves into conflicts, leading to unequal distribution of resources.

Solution 6(3)

Fifty years ago, when Wangari was a child, the environment was very pristine, very green and very beautiful. As her land was a British colony then, the government started clearing forested mountains to establish commercial plantation of exotic species of trees such as pine, from northern hemisphere and eucalyptus from Australia. Though these trees helped them grow in commercial timber industry, they destroyed the local biodiversity, local flora and fauna.

Solution 6(4)

The indigenous flora and fauna or the local forest mountains, which were the water towers with local biodiversity retaining water in the soil, were no longer able to contain water. Later, when it rained, the water ran downstream and ended up in the lakes and oceans instead of going down into the underground reservoir so that it could come back in the form of rivers. It was observed that not only did the rain patterns change and become less, but also the rivers started drying up. There was a huge loss of local biological diversity. This caused a lot of damage to the environment.

Solution 6(5)

When the first United Nation's Conference for Women was held in 1975 in Mexico, women were saying, "We need food, we need water, we need clean drinking water, we need fodder for our animals." So, when Mathai started off with her campaign to plant trees, she came to know how illiterate the local women were when they faced problems in understanding how to plant trees. Later, they were taught by professionals. It was extremely difficult in the beginning. However, with time, the local women grew confident. As they were dealing with environment, the locals were delivered with education both in civics and also in environment. Thus, the idea of getting ordinary, illiterate woman understand and be able to plant trees that in five or ten years became big trees was a huge transformation. She was able to cut them and be able to give herself energy and also was able to sell those trees and give herself an income. She was confident to be able to have felt confident that she had done something for herself. That sense of pride, sense of dignity that they are not begging, that they are doing things for themselves was very empowering. That transformation was very powerful.

Solution 6(6)

The civic and environmental education led to literacy of natives, especially women. The empowerment of women was an automatic reaction due to the efforts of Wangari Mathai, to save the local biological diversity of her native place in Mexico. People grew more aware of why they needed to save their environment and got the idea of sustainable development and its benefits.

Besides the transformation of populace, the landscape was transformed again for the good of the local land. There was no more dust. Instead, now, there were trees and birds and even rabbits coming and going, making the environment all the more beautiful. There was shade and sometimes even dry springs came back because the water did not run, it went into the ground - a very profound transformation.

Now, the people were willing to fight for their rights, to decide that they have a right to a good clean environment, to decide that they will fight for their forests, they will protect their forests. Now they will not allow corrupt leaders to take their public land.

Chapter 4(B) - Heroes of the Environment Exercise 143

Solution 7

The correctly matched words are given below:

Words

Meanings

Ecology

The relationship of living things to one another and their environment, or the study of such relationships.

Habitat

A place where a population lives and its surroundings, both living and non-living.

Herpetologist

A zoologist who studies reptiles and amphibians.

Extinct

Having no living representative.

Aquifer

An underground geological formation, containing water.

Naturalist

A person who studies plants and animals, especially outdoors.

Biodiversity

The variety and variability among living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur.

Mangrove

Tropical evergreen trees or shrubs forming dense thickets along tidal shores.

Conservationist

A person who advocates preservation and careful management of natural resources.

Chapter 4(B) - Heroes of the Environment Exercise 144

Solution 9

Block U-17,

East of River Valley,

New Delhi.

31 October, 2018

Wangari Maathai

'BIO' Reserves Research Station

Subject: Permission to attend training under your supervision at 'BIO'

Dear Ma'am,

I recently attended one of your interviews at Phillips Embassy and got deeply motivated and enthusiastic by your opinions on saving our Mother Earth from various demons like pollution from industries, tourists, etc which are destroying our local biological diversity. I strongly favor the motion of taking some serious actions to preserve our fast disappearing flora and fauna. Your speech on empowering and educating women encouraged me to a great deal.

I am writing this mail to you in anticipation of working under your supervision in one of your projects in 'BIO' Reserves Research Station. I have worked under the Jan Morcha Movement which recently launched a project to plant trees and make reservoirs to preserve water from rainfall. I have also written articles on the threat which advanced technological developments hold to our nature. I am enclosing my CV with all my details of accomplishments till date. Hope you find me worth it. I would be highly obliged for the same.

Thanking you

Yours truly

Kanika