NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Chapter 2 - Long Walk to Freedom

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Chapter 2 - Long Walk to Freedom Exercise 18

Solution 1

The ceremonies took place in the sandstone amphitheatre formed by the  Union Buildings in Pretoria.
The  Parliament  House  in  New  Delhi,  the  Rashtrapati Bhavan  in  New  Delhi,  the Supreme Court of India in New Delhi and Madras High Court in Chennai are some examples of Indian public buildings that are made of sandstone.

Solution 2

10 May is an 'autumn day' in South Africa because on this day there was the largest gathering of international leaders on South African soil for the installation of South Africa's first democratic, non-racial government.

Besides South Africa is in the southern hemisphere and so has autumn till almost mid- May.

Chapter 2 - Long Walk to Freedom Exercise 19

Solution 3

The 'extraordinary human disaster' that Mandela mentioned at the beginning of his speech refers to the inhuman practice of apartheid i.e., the racial discrimination suffered by the blacks at the hands of whites  in South Africa.  At the end, the 'glorious human achievement' that he spoke of refers to the establishment of South Africa's first democratic, non-racial government.

Solution 4

Mandela felt privileged to be the host to the nations of the world because not too long ago,  the South Africans were considered outlaws. Because of their policy of apartheid many countries had earlier broken off diplomatic relations with South Africa.  He thus thanked all the international leaders for having come to witness his investiture as President since this event could be considered as a common victory for justice, peace and human dignity.

Solution 5

Mandela had high hopes for the future of South Africa. Once they had achieved political emancipation he pledged to liberate  all South  Africans  from  the  continuing  bondage  of  poverty,  deprivation,  suffering, gender and other discrimination. He also vowed that the beautiful land of South Africa would never ever experience racial discrimination again.

Chapter 2 - Long Walk to Freedom Exercise 21

Solution 1

The highest military generals of the South African defence force and police saluted Mandela and pledged their loyalty. When the military generals saluted Mandela, he was not unmindful of the fact that not too many years ago, they would not have saluted him, but arrested him. This change in attitude was due to the fact that a new, non-racial government was elected and Mandela was made the President of South Africa after three centuries of White rule.

Solution 2

On the day of the inauguration, two national anthems Nkosi Sukelel –iAfrika and the old anthem of the Republic ‘Die Stem were sung, by both the whites, and the  blacks together. This symbolized the equality that now existed between the blacks and whites. They were no longer divided on the basis of the colour of their skin.It also symbolised the end of the oppression of one by another. 

Solution 3

(i) In the first decade of the twentieth century, the white-skinned people of South Africa patched up their differences and erected a system of racial domination against the dark-skinned people of their own land, thus creating the basis of one of the harshest and most inhumane societies the world had ever known.
(ii) In the last decade of the twentieth century, the previous system had been overturned forever and replaced by one that recognized the rights and freedoms of all peoples, regardless of the colour of their skin.

Solution 4

Mandela had seen his comrades in the struggle risk and give their lives for an idea. On seeing these men and women stand up to attacks and torture without breaking, showing strength and resilience that defied the imagination, Mandela learnt that courage was not the absence of fear, but the triumph over it. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear.

Solution 5

For Mandela, love comes more naturally to the human heart than hate. No one is born hating another because of the colour of his skin,or his background or religion. People have to learn to hate. If they can learn to hate then they can also be taught to love as love comes naturally.

Chapter 2 - Long Walk to Freedom Exercise 24

Solution I-1

Noun

Verb

Rebellion

Rebel 

Constitution

Constitute 

Formation

Form 

Obligation

Oblige 

Transformation

Transform 

Discrimination

Discriminate 

Deprivation

Deprive 

Demonstration

Demonstrate 

Oppression

Oppress 

Imagination

Imagine 

Freedom

free

Solution 1

Before Nelson  Mandela  became  the President,  South  Africa  was  in  the  grips  of apartheid and was thus declared an outlaw by other nations. When Mandela became the President, he abolished apartheid and thus diplomatic relations were rebuilt with many countries. The inauguration of a new, non-racial government was a historic moment in  South  African  as  well  as  world  history.  Thus, several distinguished international leaders attended this inauguration. It signified the triumph of justice, peace and human dignity.

Solution 2

When Mandela says that he was 'simply the sum of all African patriots,' he means that he could identify with the  unimaginable sacrifices of all  those thousands of noble and courageous men who fought for the collective freedom of the African people. He was pained that he could not thank them for their immense courage and suffering and that they could not see what their sacrifices had wrought.

Solution 3
Yes, I agree that the "depths of oppression" create "heights of character". Mandela thought that the decades of brutality and oppression had an unintended effect of creating many African patriots with unimaginable heights of character. Thus, he felt that the greatest wealth of South Africa is its people.  In similar manner, Bhagat Singh remained courageous while facing utmost cruelty at the hands of British.
Solution 4

As a boy, Mandela did not have a hunger for freedom because he thought that he was born free. He believed that as long as he obeyed his father and abided by the customs of his tribe, he was free in every possible manner and not troubled by the laws of man or God. He had certain needs as a teenager and certain needs as a young man. Gradually, he realized that he was selfish during his boyhood. He slowly understood that it was not just his freedom that was being curtailed, but the freedom of all his black brothers and sisters.  It is after attaining this understanding that he developeds a hunger for the freedom of his people

Solution 5

Mandela  realized  in  his youth  that  it  was  not  just his  freedom  that  was  being curtailed, but the freedom of all blacks. The hunger for his own freedom became the hunger for the freedom of his people. . A freedom that would enable his people to live their lives with dignity and self respect. This desire of a non-racial society transformed him into a virtuous and self-sacrificing man. Thus, he joined the African National Congress and this changed him from a frightened young man into a bold man. It lead to the transformation of a law abiding attorney to a criminal; a family loving husband into a man without a home, a life loving man into a monk. He could no longer enjoy the poor and limited freedoms he was allowed when he knew his people were not free.

Solution 6

Mandela mentions that every man has twin obligations. The first is to his  family, parents, wife and children; the second obligation is to his people, his community and his country.

Solution 7

As a boy, Mandela did not have a hunger to be free as he thought that he was born free. As long as he obeyed his father and abided by the customs of his tribe, he was free in every way he knew. Free to run in the fields, swim in the streams, roast mealies under the stars, ride on the backs of bulls. As a student, he wanted certain "transitory freedoms" only for himself, such as being able to stay out at night, read what he pleased and go where he chose. He then talks about certain "basic honourable freedoms" such as achieving his potential of earning his living and of marrying and having a family. The freedom not to be obstructed in a lawful life.

He builds  the  contrast  between  these  two  freedoms  by  stating  that  the  transitory freedoms he wanted were limited to him, whereas the honourable freedoms had to do more with his and his people's position in the society.

Solution 8

Mandela does not feel that the oppressor is free because according to him an oppressor is a prisoner of hatred, who is locked behind the bars of  prejudice and narrow-mindedness. It is not possible for a person to be free when he/she is taking away someone elses freedom just as surely as a person is not free when his freedom is taken away from him. He feels that both the oppressor and the oppressed are robbed of their humanity.

Chapter 2 - Long Walk to Freedom Exercise 25

Solution I-2

 

  1. Martin Luther King’s contribution (contribute) to our history as an outstanding

leader began when he came to the assistance (assist) of Rosa Parks, a seamstress

who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white passenger.  In those days

American Blacks were confined to positions of second class citizenship by restrictive

laws and customs. To break these laws would mean subjugation (subjugate) and

humiliation (humiliate) by the police and the legal system.  Beatings, imprisonment

(imprison) and sometimes death awaited those who defied the system.  Martin Luther

King’s tactics of protest involved non-violent resistance (resist) to racial injustice.

Solution 2

1. This means that Mr Singh regularly invites famous personalities such as Amitabh Bachchan and Shah Rukh Khan to his parties.
2. This means that Madhuri Dixit is compared to a landmark in acting in the form of legendary actress Madhubala.
3. This means that history is not only the story of the great fighters and leaders such as Alexander, Napoleon and Hitler, but also of ordinary people.

Chapter 2 - Long Walk to Freedom Exercise 26

Solution 3

A

B 

1.

I was not unmindful of  the fact

(i)

had not forgotten; was aware of the fact 

2.

When my comrades and I were

pushed to our limits

(iii)

felt that we could not endure the suffering any longer 

3.

To reassure me and keep me going

(ii)

help me continue to live in hope in this very difficult situation 

4.

The basic and honourable freedoms of ... earning my keep... 

(i)

earning enough money to live on