7th of September 2015

please explain extraction of metals through roasting and calcination, and refining of metals.

Sunil Kumar Ayyappan Santhamma - Junior - Class VI

Monday, September 07, 2015 at 19:00:PM


Hi Sunil,

Concentrated ore is converted into metal oxide either by Roasting or Calcination.


Process of heating the concentrated ore to a high temperature in the presence of excess air.



Process of heating the concentrated ore in the absence of air at a temperature not sufficient to melt the ore.

Refining of Impure Metal

  1. Distillation refining: For refining volatile metals, e.g. zinc, mercury.
  2. Liquation: For refining metals with low melting points, e.g. lead, tin.
  3. Oxidation refining: For refining metals by oxidation of their impurities, e.g. iron.
  4. Electrolytic refining: For refining impure metals by electrolysis, e.g. Cu, Al, Pb.


Monday, September 07, 2015 at 19:05:PM