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Principles Related To Practical Chemistry

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Principles Related to Practical Chemistry PDF Notes, Important Questions and Formulas

Carbonyl Compounds

 

 1. Introduction:

These have general formula CnH2nO and contains > C O group which is present in aldehyde   and      ketone. Thus aldehydes and ketones are collectively called as carbonyl compounds.

 

2. IUPAC Nomenclature of Aldehydes and Ketones

 

 

Ketones

IUPAC name

1.

 begin mathsize 12px style table row blank blank straight O blank blank row blank blank parallel to blank blank row cell CH subscript 3 end cell minus straight C minus cell CH subscript 3 end cell end table end style

Propanone

2.

 begin mathsize 12px style table row blank blank straight O blank blank blank blank row blank blank parallel to blank blank blank blank row cell CH subscript 3 end cell minus straight C minus cell CH subscript 2 end cell minus cell CH subscript 3 end cell end table end style

Butanone

3.

 begin mathsize 12px style table row blank blank straight O blank blank blank blank blank blank row blank blank parallel to blank blank blank blank blank blank row cell CH subscript 3 end cell minus straight C minus cell CH subscript 2 end cell minus cell CH subscript 2 end cell minus cell CH subscript 3 end cell end table end style

Pentan-2-one

4.

 begin mathsize 12px style table row blank blank straight O blank straight O blank blank row blank blank parallel to blank parallel to blank blank row cell CH subscript 3 end cell minus straight C minus straight C minus cell CH subscript 3 end cell end table end style

Butanedione

5.

 begin mathsize 12px style table row blank blank cell CH subscript 3 end cell blank straight O blank cell CH subscript 3 end cell blank blank row blank blank vertical line blank parallel to blank vertical line blank blank row cell CH subscript 3 end cell minus CH minus straight C minus CH minus cell CH subscript 3 end cell end table end style

2,4-Dimethyl pentan-3-one

6.

 

1-Phenylpropan-1-one

7.

 

3-methylcyclopentanone

8.

 

Cyclohex-2-en-1-one

or

2-Cyclohexenone

9.

 

4-Hydroxy-4-methyl pentan-2-one

10.

 begin mathsize 12px style table row blank blank straight O blank blank row blank blank parallel to blank blank row cell CH subscript 3 end cell minus straight C minus straight H end table end style

Ethanol

11.

 begin mathsize 12px style table row blank blank blank blank straight O blank blank row blank blank blank blank parallel to blank blank row cell CH subscript 3 end cell minus cell CH subscript 2 end cell minus straight C minus straight H end table end style

Propanol

12.

 begin mathsize 12px style table row blank blank blank blank blank blank straight O blank blank row blank blank blank blank blank blank parallel to blank blank row cell CH subscript 3 end cell minus cell CH subscript 2 end cell minus cell CH subscript 2 end cell minus straight C minus cell straight H subscript 3 end cell end table end style

Butanol

13.

 

3-Hydroxybutanal

14.

 begin mathsize 12px style CH subscript 3 minus CH subscript 2 minus CH equals CH minus CHO end style

Pent-2-en-1-el

or

Pen-2-enal

15.

 

4-Bromo-3-methyl heptanal

16.

 

Cyclohexanecarbaldehyde

17.

 

2-Hydroxycyclooentane-1-carbaldehyde

18.

 begin mathsize 12px style table row blank blank blank blank straight O blank blank blank blank row blank blank blank blank parallel to blank blank blank blank row cell CH subscript 3 end cell minus cell CH subscript 2 end cell minus straight C minus cell CH subscript 2 end cell minus CHO end table end style

3-Oxopentanal

19.

 begin mathsize 12px style table row blank blank straight O blank blank blank blank row blank blank parallel to blank blank blank blank row cell CH subscript 3 end cell minus straight C minus cell CH subscript 2 end cell minus COOH end table end style

3-Oxobutanoic acid

20.

 

2-Formylbenzoic acid

21.

 

2-(3-oxobutyl)-cyclohexanone

22.

 

2-ethylhex-2-en-1-al

23.

 

2,5-dimethylheptan-3-one

24.

 begin mathsize 12px style table row cell CH subscript 3 end cell minus CH minus CH minus CH equals straight O row blank blank vertical line blank vertical line blank blank blank blank row blank blank Cl blank cell CH subscript 3 end cell blank blank blank blank end table end style

3-chloro-2-methylbutanal

25.

 

3-ethycyclobutanone

 

 3. General methods of preparation of Aldehyde and Ketones

 

  1. Hydration of Alkyne:
    It is addition of water in the presence of heavy metal ion. acetylene on hydration gives aldehyde while any higher alkyne gives ketone.
    begin mathsize 12px style straight H minus straight C identical to straight C minus straight H text    end text rightwards arrow from straight H subscript 2 straight O to Hg to the power of plus plus end exponent divided by straight H subscript 2 SO subscript 4 of CH subscript 3 minus CH equals straight O end style
    begin mathsize 12px style straight R minus straight C identical to straight C minus straight H rightwards arrow from left parenthesis ii right parenthesis text  H end text subscript 2 straight O subscript 2 divided by OH to the power of minus to left parenthesis straight i right parenthesis text   end text straight B subscript 2 straight H subscript 6 of straight R minus CH subscript 2 minus CH equals straight O end style
    In this reaction Borane (BH3) is electrophile.
    begin mathsize 12px style 3 straight R minus straight C identical to straight C minus straight H rightwards arrow with BH subscript 3 on top left parenthesis straight R minus CH equals CH right parenthesis subscript 3 straight B rightwards arrow with straight H subscript 2 straight O subscript 2 on top straight R minus CH equals CH minus OH rightwards harpoon over leftwards harpoon straight R minus CH subscript 2 minus CH equals straight O end style
    Higher alkyne except alkyne-1 will give ketone during hydroboration


    The preparation of carbonyl compounds from alkyne depends upon R part of (A) and also presence of inductive effect group attached to R.

  2. Hydroboration of alkyne:
    It is used to get aldehyde from alkyne-1. Here reagent is (i) diborane (B2H6) (ii) H2O2(OH-)

  3. Ozonolysis of alkene:
    It is used to get carbonyl compounds from alkene. The reaction is

 

Salt Analysis

Qualitative analysis involves indentification of ions (cations and anion) of a salt or a misture of salts through their characteristic reactions. The process involves.

(i)   Analysis of anions and

(ii)  Analysis of cations.

ANALYSIS OF ANIONS (ACIDIC RADICALS)

Group I : Anions which liberate gases with dil. HCl or dil. H2SO4

 

 

 

Group II : Gases or acid vapours evolved with conc. H2SO4 (Cl- Br-I- begin mathsize 12px style NO subscript 3 superscript minus end style)

 

 

Group III: Anions which do not liberate any gas with dil HCl or conc. H2SO4. They are detected by precipitation begin mathsize 12px style left parenthesis SO subscript straight 4 superscript 2 - comma PO subscript straight 4 superscript 3 - straight right parenthesis end style




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