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Some important aromatic compound with their common names.
IUPAC Name of Substituted phenol and benzoic acid.
Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution Reaction
A reaction energy diagram for the electrophilic bromination of benzene. The reaction occurs in two steps and releases energy.
Some Electrophilic Aromatic substitution reactions:
Figure Substituent effects in electrophilic aromatic substitutions. All activating groups are ortho-and para-directing, and all deactivating groups other than halogen are meta-directing. The halogens are ortho and para-directing deactivators.
Alkane are the saturated non polar hydrocarbon having general formula CnH2n+2.
Hydrocarbon – Those organic compounds which contain only carbon and hydrogen atoms are known as hydrocarbons.
General method of preparation
Hydrogen → Addition of H2 to unsaturated bond
Hydrogenation is of two kind
(b) Homogeneous→ It is one phase hydrogenation both catalyst and alkenes area solution. In this hydrogenation catalyst are organic complex of transition metal like Rh or Ir.
Hydrogenation is exothermic, qualitative and during the hydrogenation, total heat evolved to hydrogenate one mole of unsaturated compound is called heat of hydrogenation. Heat of hydrogenation is the measurement of stability of isomeric alkenes.
Mechanism →Two mechanisms are suggested
Free radical mechanism
The alkyl halide should be 1° or 2°, with 3° R-X SN2 and free radical coupling is not possible due to steric hinderance so in that case elimination or disproportionate is possible.
In the ionic mechanism alkyl sodium gives strong base as well as nucleophilic
which gives SN2 with R-X, ether should be dry otherwise, if moisture is present then forms R-H instead of R-R with H2O
(ii) By G. R
RMgX + H congaing compound→ R – H
(iii) By corey house alkane synthesis
R2 CuLi is the source of ⊖R
R2 CuLi do not react with –NO2, -CN, >C=O etc.
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