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Geography is about the exploration of places from the perspective of resources, environmental diversity, climate, transport, geographical issues etc. Additionally, through your ICSE Class 10 Geography chapters, you’ll get to understand the Geography of India in detail.

On TopperLearning, we will provide you with study materials for all Geography chapters including ‘Interpretation of Topographical Maps’, ‘Climate’, ‘Natural Vegetation’, ‘Manufacturing Industries’ etc. Get detailed notes and solved question papers that are written as per the ICSE guidelines by expert Geography teachers.

Also, map reading is an important life skill that you can master while learning Geography. Geography concepts are essential for cracking competitive exams too. Now, you can gain more from your ICSE Geography Class 10 chapters while scoring more marks with TopperLearning study materials.

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Chapter 1: Interpretation of Topographical Maps

 

Q 1. Study the extract of the Survey of India Map sheet No. 45D/10 and answer the following questions:

  1. i. Give the four figure grid reference of the settlement of Hamirpura.               [2]
    ii. Give the four figure grid reference of the temple in the settlement of Jolpur. 
  2. i. What does the blue coloured circle in the grid square 0619 represent?          [2]
    ii. What is the compass direction of Dantrai from Jolpur? 
  3. What is the difference between the :                         [2]
    i. Pattern of settlements in 0725 and the settlement of Idarla?
    ii. Drainage pattern of the streams in 0624 and those in 0824?
  4. What is the value of the contour line in square 0226? What is the contour interval in the map?      [2]
  5. Mention any two factors which provide evidence that the region in the map extract is a rural region. [2]
  6. i. How does the feature, indicated by the black curves in 0721, show that rainfall in this region is seasonal? [2]
    ii Mention one man made feature in the map, which also provides evidence that the rainfall is seasonal. 
  7. i. Name two natural features in 0527.         [2]
    ii Name two natural features in 0325.
  8. Name two features which makes Dantrai a more important settlement than the other settlement in the map extract. [2]
  9. Calculate the area of the region which lies to the south of northing 21 in square kilometers. [2]
  10. What are the following? [2]
    i. The black vertical line between eastings 09 and 10
    ii. 302 in grid square 0425.
 

Chapter 2: Map of India

 

Q 1. Mark the following on an outline map of India: [10]

  1. Karakoram Pass
  2. Malwa Plateau
  3. Gulf of Mannar
  4. River Godavari
  5. Direction of the South West Monsoon winds arriving into India
  6. Tropic of Cancer
  7. Standard Meridian
  8. Shade a region with Black Cotton Soil
  9. Mumbai High
  10. Mark and name the Nilgiri mountains

 

Chapter 3: The Climate of India


  1. In what ways does the Himalayas affect the climate of India?             [2]
  2. Name  two  types  of  cyclonic  systems  that  affect  India  and  two  areas  that  receive rainfall from these systems.          [2]
  3. Give two important characteristics of the South West monsoon rainfall.
  4. Name the following:                                                                           [3]
    i.    The thunderstorms accompanied with strong winds and heavy rainfall in west Bengal.
    ii.    The local winds that bring a light rainfall to South India and is good for tea and coffee crops.   
    iii.    A phenomena that causes rainfall over the northern parts of the country and snowfall over the parts of Jammu and Kashmir.  
  5.  Give reasons for the following:                                                             [1X7]
    i. Kochi is warmer than Mumbai even though both lie on the western coast of India.
    ii. The Konkan coast experiences orographic rainfall.
    iii. Western Rajasthan receives no rain from the Arabian Sea branch of the South West Monsoon winds.
    iv. Kolkata receives heavier rainfall than Delhi.
    v. Kanpur has extreme temperature conditions.
    vi. When the Malabar Coast is receiving heavy rainfall in July, the Tamil Nadu coast is comparatively dry.
    vii. Mahabaleshwar received heavier rainfall than Pune.
  6. Study the climate data given below and answer the questions that follow: 



    a. Calculate the total annual rainfall experienced by the station.               [1]
    b. What is the annual range of temperature?                                           [1]
    c. On which coast of India does the station lie? Give reason for your answer.         [1]
 

Chapter 4: Soil Resources 

 

  1. Mention two differences between Alluvial Soil and Black Cotton Soil. [2]
  2. What is soil erosion? Mention two steps that could be taken to prevent soil erosion. [2]
  3. State the characteristic of each of the soils named below that makes them most suitable for crop cultivation: [3]
    a. Alluvial soil
    b. Black soil
    c. Red soil
  4. Name the following:                                                   [1X5]
    a. A soil that experiences leaching
    b. One ‘in-situ’ and ‘ex-situ’ soil
    c. A fertile young alluvium soil
    d. A soil which is good for the cultivation of tea and coffee
    e. It forms the second largest soil group in India
  5. Define the following:                                                  [1X7]
    a. Leaching
    b. Gully Erosion
    c. Rill erosion
    d. Sheet Erosion
    e. Stream Bank Erosion
    f. Strip Cropping
    g. Contour Ploughing
  6. Give geographical reasons for the following:                  [1X6]
    a. Different regions in India having different kinds of soil.
    b. Black soil being suitable for growth of cotton.
    c. Reforestation should be practiced extensively.
    d. Alluvial soil differs in texture.
    e. Black soil does not get leached.
    f. Red soil appears red in colour.

 

Chapter 5: Natural Vegetation

 

  1. State two differences between tropical evergreen and tropical deciduous forests. [2]
  2. Give two characteristics features of the montane forests. [2]
  3. Give three reasons for rapid depletion of forest resources in India in the past. [3] 
  4. How do trees in the Tropical desert forests adapt themselves to the dry climate? [2]
  5. Explain three ways in which the forests can be conserved. [3]
  6. Identify the tree as per the characteristics mentioned below: [3]
    a. It yields wood that is hard and scented and is used for making aromatic substances.
    b. The furniture made from this tree is generally the most expensive.
    c. It is generally found in the deltaic region and provide hard durable timber.
  7. Mention one importance of the following trees: [1X4]
    a. Babool
    b. Ebony
    c. Teak
    d. Rosewood
  8. Give geographical reasons for the following: [3]
    a. Evergreen forests always appear green.
    b. Forests are important natural resources
    c. Plants in tropical deserts have waxy leaves.
  9. Name two regions in India where these forests are found: [1X4]
    a. Tropical evergreen
    b. Littoral forests
    c. Moist deciduous forests
    d. Scrub vegetation

 

Chapter 6: Water Resources 

 

  1. State two reasons why irrigation is important to a country like India. [2]
  2. Why is well irrigation still a popular means of irrigation? Give two reasons to support your answers. [2]
  3. State two reasons why tank irrigation is popular in South India. [2]
  4. What is rain water harvesting? State its two benefits. [3]
  5. State three reasons as to why we should conserve water resources. [3]
  6. Give reasons: [1X5]

a. Canal irrigation leads to the ground around it becoming unproductive.
b. The Northern Plains of India are found suitable for canal irrigation.
c. Although expensive, yet, sprinkler irrigation is gaining popularity in recent times.
d. A tube well should be installed in a fertile and productive region.
e. Well irrigation is not very popular in the peninsular region.

 

Chapter 7: Mineral Resources


  1. Name the ore of aluminium. Describe two main uses of aluminum. [3]
  2. Name three varieties of iron ore. State one characteristic of each of these ore. [3]
  3. State any two industrial uses of manganese. [2]
  4. Name two states in India where copper is found. State any two of its uses. [3]
  5. Mention any two states where manganese is found. [1]

Chapter 8: Conventional Sources of Energy

  1. Name any three types of coal found in India. Mention one use of each of these varieties. [3]
  2. Name the following: [1X6]
    a. A state where anthracite is found
    b. Two by-products of petroleum
    c. The most productive oil field in India
    d. Biggest and oldest oil field in India
    e. A longest earthen dam in Asia.
    f. First refinery in the private sector.
  3. Give reasons: [3]
    a. Coking coal has a special value.
    b. Petroleum is known as ‘liquid gold’.
    c. Many cities in India have completely switched over to CNG
    4. Discuss three main aims of the Bhakra Nangal Project. [3]
    5. State any two disadvantages of using natural gas. [2]

 

Chapter 9: Non- Conventional Sources of Energy


  1. Give two advantages that non-conventional energy sources have over conventional energy sources.          [3]
  2. How is bio gas generated? State two main advantages of using bio gas as a fuel.           [3]
  3. What is geothermal energy? State its two main advantages.                  [3]
  4. Mention two advantage of using wind energy.                                       [2]
  5. State two main advantages of tidal energy?                                          [2]

 

Chapter 10: Agriculture- Food Crops


  1. Distinguish   between   intensive   commercial   farming   and   extensive   commercial farming.             [3]
  2. Differentiate between a Rabi crop and a Kharif crop.                             [2]
  3. Discuss two main institutional factors that have added to the problems of agriculture in India.            [2]
  4. Mention two importance of agriculture in India.                                      [2]
  5. Discuss two main features of mixed farming. State one benefit of mixed farming.          [2]
  6. Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow:            [1X3]


    a. Identify the crop shown in the picture.
    b. What climatic conditions are required for the cultivation of this crop?
    c. Name a state which leads in the production of this crop.
  7. With reference to rice cultivation answer the following: [2]
    a. Why does rice grow well in a soil with a clay like subsoil?
    b. What is the advantage of growing rice in nurseries before it is transplanted?

  8. Discuss the requirements of growing wheat crop with reference to: [3]
    a. Temperature
    b. Rainfall
    c. Soil

  9. Give reason: [2]
    a. Pulses are rotated with other crops.
    b. Millets are known as dry crops 

 
Chapter 11: Agriculture- Cash Crops


  1. Define the following: [3]
    a. Ratooning
    b. Ginning
    c. Retting
  2. State climatic conditions and soil required for the growth of sugarcane. [2]
  3. Give geographical reasons: [1X10]
    a. Regular pruning is essential for tea bushes.
    b. Coffee beans are roasted.
    c. Cotton grows widely in Maharashtra
    d. Clonal planting is the best method of tea propagation.
    e. Oilseeds are an important commercial crop grown in India.
    f. Tea is cultivated on hill slopes.
    g. The yield per hectare of sugarcane is higher in the Southern states.
    h. Mustard is mainly grown in Sutlej Ganga Plain region.
    i. Women are usually employed for tea plucking.
    j. Silver oak and banana trees are grown on coffee plantations.
  4. Explain the following terms: [2]
    a. Bud grafting
    b. Oil cake
  5. Study the picture below and answer the following questions: [3]


    a. Identify the crop in the picture/
    b. State climatic conditions and soil type suitable for the growth of this crop.
    c. Name two states that lead in the production of this crop.

Chapter 12: Agro based Industries


  1. Give two reasons for the importance of the jute industry in the Ganga Brahmaputra delta region. [2]
  2. Mention two problems of the cotton textile industry in India. [2]
  3. Mention three problems of the jute textile industry in India. [3]
  4. Mention three factors that have helped the sugar industry flourish in the peninsular region rather than in the northern regions of India. [3]
  5. Give reasons for the following: [1X6]
    a. It is necessary to crush sugarcane within 24 hours of harvesting.
    b. Sericulture flourished in Karnataka.
    c. Kolkata is an important cotton manufacturing center even though West Bengal is not a leading producer of cotton.
    d. Cotton textile industry is an agro based industry.
    e. Cotton industry is more widespread than the jute industry.
    f. India produces very little cane-sugar though it is one of the largest producers of sugarcane in the world.
  6. State one function of the following: [3]
    a. Molasses
    b. Bagasse
    c. Press mud


Chapter 13: Mineral based Industries


  1. Why is the iron and steel industry called a basic industry? [2]
  2. Define a mini steel plant. [2]
  3. With regard to the electronic industry, answer the following questions: [3]
    a. What is the significance of the electronic industry in recent times?
    b. Name two cities that have leading Software Companies
    c. Name two products of the electronic industry.
  4. Where do the following iron and steel plants get their supply of coal and iron ore from? [2]
    a. Tata iron and steel company
    b. Rourkela
  5. Mini steel plants causes less pollution than integrated steel plants. Give reason. [2]
  6. With regard to the petrochemical industry, answer the following questions: [1X4]
    a. Name two raw materials used in the petrochemical industry.
    b. Products made from petrochemicals are growing in popularity. Give reason.
    c. Name two products of this industry.
    d. Name the first integrated petrochemical plant in India.

 

Chapter 14: Transport


  1. Why is road transport in India considered more useful than rail transport? State two reasons. [2]
  2. State one advantage and one disadvantage of inland waterways. [2]
  3. With regard to the road transport, answer the following questions: [3]
    a. State one economic benefit of the Golden Quadrilateral Project.
    b. State one important difference between an expressway and a highway.
    c. Name the first expressway constructed in the country.
  4. Give reasons: [3]
    a. Railways have helped in industrialisation.
    b. Rich section of people prefers to travel by airway.
    c. Air transport is of great importance during natural calamity.
  5. Discuss two advantages and two disadvantages of water transport. [2]

 

Chapter 15: Waste Management


  1. Define the following terms: [1X5]
    a. Biomagnification
    b. Eutrophication
    c. Sanitary landfill
    d. Composting
    e. Greenhouse effect
  2. How does waste accumulation affect the environment? [2]
  3. What is acid rain? Mention two of its effects. [3]
  4. Give reason: [1X3]
    a. Waste segregation is important.
    b. Nuclear waste is harmful.
    c. Composting has become a popular method of waste decomposition.
  5. With reference to global warming, answer the following questions:
    a. Name two human activities that has resulted in global warming. [2]
    b. Discuss three effects of global warming. [3]

 

Chapter 1: Interpretation of Topographical Maps


 Q 1. Study the extract of the Survey of India Map sheet No. 45D/10 and answer the following questions: 

  1. i. Give the four figure grid reference of the settlement of Hamirpura.
    ii. Give the four figure grid reference of the temple in the settlement of Jolpur. 
  2. i. What does the blue coloured circle in the grid square 0619 represent?
    ii. What is the compass direction of Dantrai from Jolpur? 
  3. What is the difference between the :
    i. Pattern of settlements in 0725 and the settlement of Idarla?
    ii. Drainage pattern of the streams in 0624 and those in 0824?
  4. What is the value of the contour line in square 0226? What is the contour interval in the map?
  5. Mention any two factors which provide evidence that the region in the map extract is a rural region.
  6. i. How does the feature, indicated by the black curves in 0721, show that rainfall in this region is seasonal?
    ii Mention one man made feature in the map, which also provides evidence that the rainfall is seasonal. 
  7. i. Name two natural features in 0527.
    ii Name two natural features in 0325.
  8. Name two features which makes Dantrai a more important settlement than the other settlement in the map extract.
  9. Calculate the area of the region which lies to the south of northing 21 in square kilometers.
  10. What are the following?
    i. The black vertical line between eastings 09 and 10
    ii. 302 in grid square 0425.
Solution: 
  1. (i) 0123-Settlement of Hamirpura
    (ii) 078 187-Temple in the settlement of Jolpur
  2. (i) Unlined well
    (ii) North-West
  3. (i) Settlement pattern in 0725 is Dispersed
    Settlement pattern in Idarala is Nucleated
    (ii) Drainage pattern in 0624-Trellis
    Drainage pattern in 0824- Dendritic
  4. (i) value of contour line in square 0226=300m
    (ii) Contour interval of the map=20m
  5. Two factors that provide evidence that the region in the map extract is a rural region are that there are no large settlements and there is an absence of metalled roads.
  6. (i) The rainfall in 0721 is seasonal as the ground is broken. Broken grounds are formed along the banks of seasonal rivers due to alternate dry and wet periods.
    (ii) Cart tracks are motorable in the dry seasons in the map extract. 
  7. (i) Barren lands and seasonal streams and trees are two natural features in 0527.
    (ii) Huts and cart tracks are two man made features in 0325.
  8. The settlement at Dantrai has a police chowki and a post office which are absent in the other settlements. It is also well connected by cart tracks with other settlements. 
  9. Area= LXB
    9.75 X 3
    Area= 9.75x 3=29.25 sq.km
  10. (i) It is a longitude
    (ii) Spot height- 302m


Chapter 2: Map of India


 Q 1. Mark the following on an outline map of India: 

  1. Karakoram Pass
  2. Malwa Plateau
  3. Gulf of Mannar
  4. River Godavari
  5. Direction of the South West Monsoon winds arriving into India
  6. Tropic of Cancer
  7. Standard Meridian
  8. Shade a region with Black Cotton Soil
  9. Mumbai High
  10. Mark and name the Nilgiri mountains

 Solution:

 

Chapter 3: The Climate of India

 

  1. In what ways does the Himalayas affect the climate of India?
  2. Name  two  types  of  cyclonic  systems  that  affect  India  and  two  areas  that  receive rainfall from these systems.
  3. Give two important characteristics of the South West monsoon rainfall.
  4. Name the following:
    i.    The thunderstorms accompanied with strong winds and heavy rainfall in west Bengal.
    ii.    The local winds that bring a light rainfall to South India and is good for tea and coffee crops.   
    iii.    A phenomena that causes rainfall over the northern parts of the country and snowfall over the parts of Jammu and Kashmir.  
  5.  Give reasons for the following:
    i. Kochi is warmer than Mumbai even though both lie on the western coast of India.
    ii. The Konkan coast experiences orographic rainfall.
    iii. Western Rajasthan receives no rain from the Arabian Sea branch of the South West Monsoon winds.
    iv. Kolkata receives heavier rainfall than Delhi.
    v. Kanpur has extreme temperature conditions.
    vi. When the Malabar Coast is receiving heavy rainfall in July, the Tamil Nadu coast is comparatively dry.
    vii. Mahabaleshwar received heavier rainfall than Pune.
  6. Study the climate data given below and answer the questions that follow: 



    a. Calculate the total annual rainfall experienced by the station.
    b. What is the annual range of temperature?
    c. On which coast of India does the station lie? Give reason for your answer.

Solution:

  1. The Himalayas affect the climate of India in the following ways:
    • The Himalayas protects the Northern Indian plains from severe cold winds which blow from Central Asia during winter season.
    • The rain bearing winds blowing from the Arabian Sea bring in rainfall over the northern plains after striking the Himalayas. Central Asia lies in the rain shadow area of the Himalayas and hence hardly receive any precipitation from these winds.
  2. Two  types  of  cyclonic  systems  that  affect  India  are  the  tropical  cyclones  and  the temperate  cyclones.  While  the  tropical  cyclones  bring  rainfall  to  West  Bengal  and Odisha; the temperate cyclones bring rainfall to Delhi and Punjab.
  3. Two important characteristics of the South west monsoon rainfall are:
    • It is influenced by the mountains and relief features of the country. For example, the  western  slopes  of  the  Western  Ghats  get  heavy  rainfall  while  the  eastern slopes  get  scanty  rainfall  as  the latter  lies  on  the  leeward  side  of  the  Western Ghats.
    • Monsoon rainfall in India is unevenly distributed in the country. While Meghalaya receive more than 200 cm of rainfall, the western parts  of  Rajasthan  and  Punjab get only up to 50-80 cm of rainfall annually.
  4. i. Kalbaisakhi
    ii. Mango showers
    iii. Western Depression
  5. Geographical reasons:
    i. Kochi is warmer than Mumbai even though both lie on the western coast of India because the former is located close to the Equator and receives direct rays of the Sun throughout the year.
    ii. The Konkan coast receives orographic rainfall because it lies of the wind ward side of Western Ghats when south west monsoon strikes it.
    iii. In Rajasthan, the south West monsoon winds blow in parallel to the Aravalli Range. The latter is not able to stop the moisture laden winds making Rajasthan a dry state.
    iv. The Bay of Bengal branch, which brings rainfall to the north eastern states due to the presence of mountain ranges, sheds its moisture as it travel towards the west. Thus there is a decrease in rainfall as one goes from east to west. Since Kolkata lies in  the  lower  Ganga  valley  and  Delhi  lies  further  west  to it ,  it  rains  more  in Kolkata than in Delhi.
    v. Kanpur lies in the interior of the continent. It thus experiences a continental type of climate.  While summers are too hot, winters are too cold.  Thus, Kanpur experiences extreme temperature conditions.
    vi. The Malabar  Coast  receives  heavy  rainfall  from the  Arabian  Sea  branch  of  the South  west  monsoon  while  Tamil  Nadu  receives  scanty  rainfall  as  it  is  located parallel  to the  Bay  of  Bengal  branch  and  lies  in  the  rain  shadow  area  of  the Arabian Sea branch.
    vii. Mahabaleshwar is located on the windward side of the Western Ghats receive heavy rainfall from South West Monsoon winds. Pune on the other hand located on the leeward side of the Western Ghats and hence gets less than 70 cm of rainfall annually. 
  6. a. Annual rainfall=Sum of rainfall in all twelve months.
    Therefore, annual rainfall is 129 cm.
    b. The annual range of temperature = Maximum temperature − minimum temperature
    32.5 - 24.5= 8°C
    c. The station lies on the southeastern coast of India (Tamil Nadu) as the station receives maximum rainfall from the treating monsoon.

 

Chapter 4: Soil Resources

 

  1. Mention two differences between Alluvial Soil and Black Cotton Soil.
  2. What is soil erosion? Mention two steps that could be taken to prevent soil erosion.
  3. State the characteristic of each of the soils named below that makes them most suitable for crop cultivation:
    a. Alluvial soil
    b. Black soil
    c. Red soil
  4. Name the following:
    a. A soil that experiences leaching
    b. One ‘in-situ’ and ‘ex-situ’ soil
    c. A fertile young alluvium soil
    d. A soil which is good for the cultivation of tea and coffee
    e. It forms the second largest soil group in India
  5. Define the following:
    a. Leaching
    b. Gully Erosion
    c. Rill erosion
    d. Sheet Erosion
    e. Stream Bank Erosion
    f. Strip Cropping
    g. Contour Ploughing
  6. Give geographical reasons for the following:
    a. Different regions in India having different kinds of soil.
    b. Black soil being suitable for growth of cotton.
    c. Reforestation should be practiced extensively.
    d. Alluvial soil differs in texture.
    e. Black soil does not get leached.
    f. Red soil appears red in colour.

 Solution:

  1. Two differences between Alluvial soil and Black Cotton Soil are:

    Alluvial Soil

    Black Cotton Soil

    This is an ex situ soil which means that it is transported and deposited by various agents of environment.

    It is an in situ soil means that it is formed in their original position by the breaking of the parent rock.

    In India, it is mainly found in northern and coastal plains.

    It is found mainly in the Deccan region in India.

  2. The removal of the topsoil by water, wind and human activities is called soil erosion. Two ways to prevent soil erosion are
    Shelter belts:  Trees should be planted in several rows to check the speed of the wind. This reduces soil erosion because of wind.
    Constructing dams: Because the rivers cause soil pollution, dams are built in the upper course of the rivers to check soil erosion.
  3. Characteristic of the soil making them fertile for agricultural activities:
    a. Alluvial Soil: It is rich in minerals especially potash and lime.
    b. Black Soil: Black soil is fertile because it is clayey in nature. Thus, it helps in water retention.  During the dry  season,  the  soil  develops  big  cracks  which  help  in  air circulation.
    c. Red Soil: It is porous and has a high percentage of iron oxide. The soil can be used for cultivation after the application of fertilisers.
  4. a. Laterite soil
    b. ‘In-situ’ soil- Red soil; - ‘Ex-situ’ alluvial soil
    c. Khadar soil
    d. Laterite soil
    e. Red soil
  5. Definitions:
    a. Leaching is a process in which the nutrients of the soil percolate down the soil due to heavy rainfall. This makes the top soil infertile. This is also called desilication.
    b. Gully erosion is a type of erosion which occurs during heavy rainfall when running water cuts through the soil making deep channels. The land thus becomes unsuitable for cultivation and is known as the bad land.
    c. Rill erosion is a type of soil erosion which occurs when runoff water forms small channels running down the slope. It is an intermediate stage between sheet and gully erosion.
    d. The washing away of the top soil due to the flowing of water as a sheet over large areas is known as sheet erosion
    e. Stream Bank Erosion occurs when streams of rivers change their course by cutting one bank and depositing the silt on the other bank of the river.
    f. Strip cropping is a method of soil conservation. When strips of grass are grown between the strips of crops, they are known as strip cropping. It breaks down the speed of winds.
    g. When one plough along the contour lines, it is called as contour ploughing. It decreases the flow of water down the slopes and thus helps in soil conservation. 
  6. Geographical reasons:
    a. India has a vast latitudinal and longitudinal extent. Different climatic conditions prevail over different parts of the country. The nature and composition of rocks differ from region to region and hence different regions in India having different kinds of soil.
    b. Cotton grows  well  in  soil  which  can  hold  water  and  has  good  drainage. This   is because  excessive  water  logging  and  moisture  can  harm  the  cotton  crop.  Since black  soil  has a high  level  of  clay, it  has  good water  holding  capacity making  it suitable for the growth of cotton.
    c. The  roots  of  trees  hold  on  to  the  soil and help  in  soil  conservation.  Deforestation exposes the soil to water and wind forces which leads to soil erosion. 
    d. Alluvial soil differs in texture as it is formed by the deposition of sediments by rivers. The alluvial soil which gets deposited in the upper reaches of the river is coarse and dry, while extremely fine and moist alluvial soil is deposited at the lower reaches of the river.
    e. Black soil does not get leached because of its capacity to hold moisture. It has high water retention capacity.
    f. Red soil appear red in colour due to the presence of high iron oxide content in it. 
 

Chapter 5: Natural Vegetation


 

  1. State two differences between tropical evergreen and tropical deciduous forests.
  2. Give two characteristics features of the montane forests.
  3. Give three reasons for rapid depletion of forest resources in India in the past.
  4. How do trees in the Tropical desert forests adapt themselves to the dry climate?
  5. Explain three ways in which the forests can be conserved.
  6. Identify the tree as per the characteristics mentioned below:
    a. It yields wood that is hard and scented and is used for making aromatic substances.
    b. The furniture made from this tree is generally the most expensive.
    c. It is generally found in the deltaic region and provide hard durable timber.
  7. Mention one importance of the following trees:
    a. Babool
    b. Ebony
    c. Teak 
    d. Rosewood
  8. Give geographical reasons for the following:
    a. Evergreen forests always appear green.
    b. Forests are important natural resources
    c. Plants in tropical deserts have waxy leaves.
  9. Name two regions in India where these forests are found:
    a. Tropical evergreen
    b. Littoral forests
    c. Moist deciduous forests
    d. Scrub vegetation

 

 Solution: 

  1. Two differences between tropical evergreen and tropical deciduous forests:

    Tropical evergreen forests

    Deciduous forests

    Tropical evergreen forests are found in the regions which receive more than 200cm of rainfall.

    Deciduous forests are found in the regions which receive rainfall between 200-70 cm.

    The trees of the tropical evergreen forests do not shed their leaves at a same time as there is no particular season for shedding their leaves.

    The trees of the deciduous forests shed their leaves for about six to eight months during the dry season.

  2. Two characteristics features of the montane forests:
    • Montane forests grow in the mountainous regions. As the temperature decreases with an increase in height, there is change in the cover of natural vegetation on altitude.
    • Montane forests can be divided into two types: the Northern Montane forests and the Southern Montane forests.
  3. Three reasons which have led to the depletion of forest resources in the past are
    • Huge tracts of forests were destructed for expanding agriculture.
    • The British systematically destroyed the Indian forests to meet the growing demand for timber in Britain. Many forests were also destroyed by the government during the World Wars to supply timber to the war front.
    • Forests have been cleared to make land available for building houses and industries.
  4. Trees in the dry climate adapt themselves in the following ways:
    • Tropical desert forests have long roots which go out deep into the search of water.
    • The leaves of the plants are waxy, small and thick to reduce transpiration. 
  5. Three ways in which the forests can be conserved:
    Afforestation or special programmes such as ‘Van Mahotsav’ should be launched and celebrated on a large scale. This will create awareness among the people regarding the protection of our forests.
    • One of the many ways by which the tribals protect the forests is by declaring a large patch of forests as ‘sacred groves’. Because these are worshipped by the tribals, trees in the sacred groves are considered to be sacred and not allowed to cut.
    • The developmental activities should be environment friendly. If timber trees are cut down for any project, then same or more number of trees should be planted in its place.
  6. a. Sandalwood
    b. Shisham
    c. Sundari
  7. Importance of the trees:
    a. Babool: Its bark and gum have medicinal value.
    b. Ebony: It is used for ornamental carving and fro decorations.
    c. Teak: It is mainly used for making ships and furniture
    d. Rosewood: It is used for making furniture, floor boards, wagon parts etc. 
  8. Geographical reasons:
    a. Evergreen forests always appear green because the trees in the forest do not shed their leaves at the same time.
    b. Forest are important natural resources because they provide us with food, fuel, fibre and fruits. They also protect and conserve soil.
    c. Plants in tropical deserts have waxy leaves to prevent the loss of water through transpiration. 
  9. Two regions in India where mentioned forests are found
    a. Tropical evergreen forests: western slopes of the Western Ghats and Andaman and Nicobar Islands
    b. Littoral Forests: Deltas of large rivers on the eastern coast and in saline swamps of Sunderbans in west Bengal
    c. Moist deciduous forests: parts of Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra
    d. Scrub vegetation: Semi-arid regions of Gujarat and Rajasthan
 

Chapter 6: Water Resources


 

  1. State two reasons why irrigation is important to a country like India.
  2. Why is well irrigation still a popular means of irrigation? Give two reasons to support your answers.
  3. State two reasons why tank irrigation is popular in South India.
  4. What is rain water harvesting? State its two benefits.
  5. State three reasons as to why we should conserve water resources.
  6. Give reasons: 

a. Canal irrigation leads to the ground around it becoming unproductive.
b. The Northern Plains of India are found suitable for canal irrigation.
c. Although expensive, yet, sprinkler irrigation is gaining popularity in recent times. 
d. A tube well should be installed in a fertile and productive region.
e. Well irrigation is not very popular in the peninsular region.

Solution: 

  1. Irrigation is important in a country like India because of the following reasons:
    • Monsoons in India are uneven and erratic in nature and hence unreliable. While it may rain well during one year, another year the rainfall may be scarce. Hence irrigation is necessary despite the monsoons.
    • Tt is important to irrigate crops to maximise production,
  2. Wells are still popular means of irrigation due to the following reasons:
    • Firstly, surface wells can be constructed at a very low cost while construction of inundation canals from rivers is not within the reach of poor farmers.
    • Secondly, wells can be used even during summers.
  3. Tank irrigation is popular in South India because of the following reasons:
    • South India does not have perennial rivers and hence the tanks form an important source of irrigation.
    • It is difficult to dig wells in the region due to the presence of stony grounds. Tanks can easily be made by collecting rainwater in hollow depressions.
  4. Rainwater harvesting is the method of collecting rain water for the use before it reaches the ground. Generally rainwater is collected from the roof top through pipes and stored in underground storing structures. Its two benefits are:
    • it collects the rainwater and stores it for domestic use
    • Rainwater harvesting helps in recharging the ground water
  5. Three reasons for the conservation of water resources are:
    • Uncertainty of Rainfall: In India, rainfall is highly irregular and uncertain. It also does not rain uniformly in all parts of the country. In such a situation, we cannot totally depend upon rainfall and thus need to conserve water.
    • Our population is increasing at a tremendous rate which may lead to the depletion of water resources at a fast pace. Thus water needs to be conserved.
    • Most of the water in rivers and other natural resources are getting polluted. The water not only needs to be conserved but also needs to be treated to meet the demands of the people and the farmers. 
  6. Reasons
    a. Alkaline salts may come up to the ground in areas where canals are used for irrigation. This happens when the water table is only a few feet below the ground. This salt when it mixes with the soil makes it unproductive.
    b. The Northern Plains of India are flat without any dense forests, making them suitable for canal irrigation.
    c. Although it is expensive, sprinkler irrigation is gaining popularity in recent times because it uses water more efficiently and reduces the amount of water required for irrigating the field.
    d. A tube well should be installed in a fertile and productive region so that the cost of construction and operation of tube wells could be recovered.
    e. It is difficult to dig wells in the stony areas of the peninsular region. Hence well irrigation is not very popular here.
 

Chapter 7: Mineral Resources

 

  1. Name the ore of aluminium. Describe two main uses of aluminum.
  2. Name three varieties of iron ore. State one characteristic of each of these ore.
  3. State any two industrial uses of manganese.
  4. Name two states in India where copper is found. State any two of its uses.
  5. Mention any two states where manganese is found.
Solution:
  1. Bauxite is an ore of aluminum. Two main uses of aluminum are:
    • Since aluminum is a good conductor of electricity, it is used in electrical industry.
    • Aluminum is a light weight metal, it is used in the manufacturing of airplanes and ships
  2. Three varieties of iron ore are hematite, magnetite and limonite.
    Hematite: It is known as ‘Red Ore’ as it is red in colour. It contains 60-70% of pure iron.
    Magnetite: It is the best quality of iron ore as it contains more than 70% of iron.
    Limonite: It is of inferior quality as it contains 35-50% of iron.
  3. Three industrial uses of manganese:
    • It is an important raw material in the iron and steel industry as it is used for hardening steel and prevents it from rusting.
    • It is used in chemical, glass and electrical industries.
  4. Copper is found in India in the states of Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Its uses are:
    • Since copper is a good conductor of electricity and ductile, it is used for making electric wires and other equipment.
    • It is used in automobile and defence industries. 
  5. Manganese is found in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Jharkhand.
 

Chapter 8: Conventional Sources of Energy


 

  1. Name any three types of coal found in India. Mention one use of each of these varieties.
  2. Name the following:
    a. A state where anthracite is found
    b. Two by-products of petroleum
    c. The most productive oil field in India
    d. Biggest and oldest oil field in India
    e. A longest earthen dam in Asia.
    f. First refinery in the private sector.
  3. Give reasons:
    a. Coking coal has a special value. 
    b. Petroleum is known as ‘liquid gold’. 
    c. Many cities in India have completely switched over to CNG
  4. Discuss three main aims of the Bhakra Nangal Project.
  5. State any two disadvantages of using natural gas.
Solution: 
  1. Three varieties of coal in India are anthracite, bituminous and lignite.
    Anthracite: Since it is a high quality coal, it has a high heating value.
    Bituminous: It is hard and black. It makes up about 80% of total coal output in the world.
    Lignite: It is a low grade coal. It is soft with high moisture content.
  2. Jammu and Kashmir
    a. Paints and paraffin wax
    b. Mumbai High
    c. Digboi oil field
    d. Hirakud Dam
    e. The Reliance Petroleum Limited at Jamnagar 
  3. Reasons:
    a. Coking coal is a high grade bituminous coal which has a special value because when it is heated in coke ovens it fuses into coke, an important ingredient in iron and steel smelting in blast furnaces.
    b. Petroleum is known as ‘liquid gold’ because it is an important natural resource and not even the tiniest part of crude petroleum goes waste or remains unused.
    c. Many cities in India have completely switched over to CNG because it is an environment friendly fuel and does not cause much pollution. It is made up of methane and hence results in less carbon emission. 
  4. Three main aims of the Bhakra Nangal Project:
    • To provide water for irrigation
    • To generate hydro electricity
    • To prevent flooding of Sutlej- Beas river
  5. Two disadvantages of using natural gas:
    • Leaks of natural gas may cause huge explosion or fire.
    • Natural gas is a non-renewable resource and can exhaust at some point of time in future.
 

Chapter 9: Non- Conventional Sources of Energy

 

  1. Give two advantages that non-conventional energy sources have over conventional energy sources.
  2. How is bio gas generated? State two main advantages of using bio gas as a fuel.
  3. What is geothermal energy? State its two main advantages.
  4. Mention two advantage of using wind energy.
  5. State two main advantages of tidal energy?

 

 Solution:

  1. Advantages of non-conventional sources of energy over conventional sources:
    • Non-conventional sources are renewable sources of energy as they can be replenished. Conventional sources of energy are non-renewable sources of energy. It means that once exhausted, they cannot be replenished.
    • Non-conventional sources such as wind and water energy are cleaner sources of energy, while conventional sources such as coal and petrol cause pollution. 
  2. Biogas is a renewable source of energy which is generated by anaerobic degradation (breaking down of organic matter by bacteria in the absence of oxygen) of plant and animal wastes in presence of water. Biogas is composed of methane, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and hydrogen sulphide. Two advantages of using bio gas as a fuel are:
    • Biogas is a clean, non-polluting and cheap source of energy.
    • There is direct supply of gas from the plant, therefore, there is no storage problem.
  3. When the heat obtained from the earth is used for generating electricity, it is known as geothermal electricity. As the interiors of the Earth are hot, the heat energy may at times surface itself in the form of hot springs. This energy can be used for the generation of electricity. Two main advantages of using geothermal energy are:
    • It is environment friendly because of the low sulphur emission, carbon dioxide and greenhouse gases.
    • It is not influenced by weather and seasons
  4. Two advantage of using wind energy:
    • It is a renewable source of energy.
    • It does not produces pollution. Thus, it is a cleaner source of energy.
  5. Two main advantages of tidal energy:
    • Water in the oceans move in extremely predictable patterns. This make it easy to harness tidal energy.
    • It is a renewable, inexhaustible and a cleaner source of energy.
 

Chapter 10: Agriculture- Food Crops


 

  1. Distinguish   between   intensive   commercial   farming   and   extensive   commercial farming.
  2. Differentiate between a Rabi crop and a Kharif crop.
  3. Discuss two main institutional factors that have added to the problems of agriculture in India.
  4. Mention two importance of agriculture in India.
  5. Discuss two main features of mixed farming. State one benefit of mixed farming.
  6. Look at the picture below and answer the questions that follow: