FRANK Solutions for Class 9 Biology Chapter 22 - Sources of Waste

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Chapter 22 - Sources of Waste Exercise 208

Question 1
Give two examples of domestic wastes.
Solution 1
Examples of domestic waste are left over food items, faeces and urine, broken nails. (Write any two)
Question 2
Give the importance of sound sewage system.
Solution 2
Sound sewage system prevents environmental pollution and requires efficient management of collection, treatment and recycling or safe disposal of sewage. It also prevents serious health hazards including viral and bacterial disease transmission.
Question 3
What are the environmental impacts of construction due to growing urbanization and development?
Solution 3
Due to growing urbanization and development, large quantities of waste is generated due to construction work, some of which includes building materials used for insulation, broken nails, electrical wiring, switches, bulbs, wood, rubble etc. Many hazardous wastes such as lead, asbestos, paints etc. are also generated by construction units. All these lead to environmental pollution. Also there is the problem of disposing off these wastes safely without harming the environment.
Question 4
What do you mean by e-waste?
Solution 4
E-waste or electronic waste refers to loosely discarded, surplus, obsolete, or broken electronic or electrical devices.
Question 5
Give two examples of e-waste.
Solution 5
Discarded computers and broken cell phones
Question 6
Name two biodegradable wastes from offices.
Solution 6
Used paper and old furniture
Question 7
What does mining waste comprise of? What hazards do they pose to environment?
Solution 7
Mining waste includes waste generated during the extraction, beneficiation and processing of minerals. This comprises slimes, gangue, tailing piles and leach residues.
Hazards posed by mining include:
(a) Release of harmful gases such as methane.
(b) Elimination of existing vegetation and destruction of the genetic profile of soil.
(c) Continuous mining at a place can displace or destroy wildlife and habitat.
Question 8
What do you mean by industrial wastes?
Solution 8
Waste that is produced by any industrial activity such as that from factories, mills and mines is called industrial waste.
Question 9
Each question has four options. Choose the correct answer:
(i) Most harmful type of environmental pollutants are
(a) human organic wastes
(b) natural nutrients in excess
(c) waste animal feed
(d) non-biodegradable chemicals
(ii) Continuous sewage flow into a stream would lead to
(a) eutrophication
(b) algal bloom
(c) depletion of oxygen
(d) increase in temperature
(iii) Pollution can be checked through
(a) reducing discharge of waste
(b) increasing industrial development
(c) throwing wastes in open spaces
(d) all the above
(iv) Domestic waste constitutes
(a) non-biodegradable pollution
(b) biodegradable pollution
(c) effluents
(d) air pollution
(v) Which one is biological in sewage treatment?
(a) primary treatment
(b) secondary treatment
(c) tertiary treatment
(d) all the above
(vi) Biodegradable pollutant is
(a) plastic
(b) asbestos
(c) sewage
(d) mercury
(vii) Which one is most toxic?
(a) Carbon
(b) CO
(c) CO2
(d) SO2
(viii) Fish die in water bodies polluted by sewage due to
(a) pathogens
(b) clogging of gills by silt
(c) reduction in oxygen
(d) foul smell
(ix) Huge quantity of sewage is dumped in a river. The BOD will
(a) increase
(b) decrease
(c) slightly decrease
(d) remain uncharged
(x) BOD is
(a) Biological Oxygen Deficit
(b) Biosphere Oxygen Demand
(c) Biological Oxygen Demand
(d) All the above
Solution 9
(i) (d)Non-biodegradable chemicals
(ii) (a) Eutrophication
(iii) (a) reducing discharge of waste
(iv) (b) biodegradable pollution
(v) (b) secondary treatment
(vi) (c) sewage
(vii) (b) CO
(viii) (c) reduction in oxygen
(ix) (a) increase
(x) (c) Biological Oxygen Demand
Question 10
What is a waste?
Solution 10
Waste is a product of human activity, generated from a great variety of sources.
Question 11
What is garbage?
Solution 11
Garbage refers to refuse consisting largely of easily decomposable and putrefying organic (animal and vegetable) waste.
Question 12
Give two examples of commercial waste.
Solution 12
Waste paper, empty printer cartridges, boxes and packaging, scrap metal etc.
(Write any two)
Question 13
What are the basic sources of wastes?
Solution 13
The basic sources of waste are:
(i) Kitchen
(ii) Industry
(iii) Agricultural land
(iv) Municipality
(v) Offices
Question 14
What kind of waste causes viral and bacterial disease transmission?
Solution 14
Human waste
Question 15
Name one kind of industry that produces hazardous wastes?
Solution 15
Construction unit
Question 16
What does sewage comprise of?
Solution 16
Sewage is a complex mixture of many distinctive chemicals. It has high concentrations of ammonium nitrate, phosphorous and many dissolved solids.
Question 17
What are the hazardous wastes generated from agricultural wastes?
Solution 17
Crop residues, fertilizers, insecticides, herbicides and farmyard waste.