Chapter 13 : Health - Frank Solutions for Class 10 Biology ICSE

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Chapter 13 - Health Excercise 162

Question 1
Define the following:
(i)    Disease            (ii)    Health
(iii)    Vaccinations        (iv)    Immunity
(v)    Antiseptic        (vi)    Cancer
(vii)    Allergy            (viii)    Hypersensitivity
(ix)    Immunization        (x)    Disinfectant
(xi)    Penicillin        (xii)    Suphonamide drugs
(xiii)    Acquired disease    (xiv)    Prophylaxis
(xv)    Antibiotic
Solution 1
(i) Disease: Any physical or physiological disorder in normal functioning of any organ or part of body is called disease.
(ii) Health: Health is a state of complete mental, physical and social well being.
(iii) Vaccinations: It is the practice of introducing vaccine (weakend or killed germs) into the body to develop immunity to a particular disease.
(iv) Immunity: It is the ability of the body to resist microorganisms that enter the body and thus prevent diseases.
(v) Antiseptic: Antiseptics are chemicals applied on the body to prevent the growth of microorganisms.
(vi) Cancer: Cancer is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in the body.
(vii) Allergy: Allergy is a hypersensitive state acquired through exposure to a particular allergen such as drugs, pollens or microorganisms.
(viii) Hypersensitivity: It refers to undesirable and excessive reactions in response to an allergen produced by the normal immune system.
(ix) Immunization: It is the process by which the body is protected against disease by inoculating the person with vaccine.
(x) Disinfectant: Disinfectants are chemicals applied on the spots to prevent the growth of microorganisms.
(xi) Penicillin: It is an antibiotic which was discovered firstly from a fungus , Penicillium notatum.
(xii) Sulphonamide drugs: Sulphonamide drugs are a group of synthetic drugs which prevent the growth and multiplication of bacteria. They are commonly called as sulpha drugs.
(xiii) Acquired disease: Acquired diseases are those diseases which are caused by a pathogen or deficiency diseases.
(xiv) Prophylaxis:  A prophylaxis is a measure taken to maintain health and prevent the spread of disease.
(xv) Antibiotic: Antibiotics are the chemical substances formed from microorganisms which kill or prevent the growth of disease causing microbes.
Question 2
Differentiate between the following:
(i) Antigen and Antibody
(ii) Antiseptic and Antibiotics
(iii) Serum and Plasma
(iv) Toxins and Antitoxins
(v) Vaccination and Sterilization
(vi) Disinfectant and Antiseptic
(vii) Active immunity and Passive immunity
(viii) Acquired disease and Congenital disease
Solution 2
Question 3
What is artificial respiration?
Solution 3
Artificial Respiration: It is a method of first-aid used to restore or maintain respiration in a person who has stopped breathing. The method uses mechanical or manual means to force air into and out of the lungs in a rhythmic fashion.
Question 4
What is DPT?
Solution 4
DPT: Diphtheria, Pertussis and Tetanus.
Question 5
What is haptene?
Solution 5
Antigens, that cannot stimulate the immune system of the body of a person, are called haptene.
Question 6
Name any three germ killing secretions of our body.
Solution 6
The three germ killing secretions of our body are:
(i) Mucus secretions from windpipe
(ii) Hydrochloric secretions from stomach
(iii) Tears from eyes.
Question 7
What does BCG stand for?
Solution 7
BCG stands for: Bacillus Calmette Guerin.
Question 8
Define giving one example of each:
(i) Antiseptic                
(ii) Antibiotic
Solution 8
(i) Antiseptic: Antiseptic are mild chemical applied on the body to kill the microorganisms. Example: Halogens (I)
(ii) Antibiotic: Antibiotic is a natural chemical substance produced by a microorganism, which inhibits or kills another microorganism. Example: Penicillin
Question 9
Give the appropriate term for the following:
(i) Providing readymade antibodies from outside for treating certain infectious diseases.
(ii) Mild chemical applied on the skin to kill germs.
Solution 9
(i) Passive acquired immunity
(ii) Antiseptics
Question 10
Complete the following statement choosing the correct alternative:
Penicillin obtained from a fungus is an ______. (antiseptic/ antibody/ antibiotic)
Solution 10
antibiotic
Question 11
Describe briefly the functions of an antiseptic.
Solution 11
Antiseptics are the chemical substances applied on the body to destroy or prevent the growth of microbes. It is harmless to skin and body. For example Alcohols, halogens can be used as antiseptic on skin.
Question 12
Name any two international health organisations.
Solution 12
The two international health organisations are: WHO and Red Cross.

Chapter 13 - Health Excercise 163

Question 1
Define vaccination.
Solution 1
Vaccination: It is the practice of artificially introducing the germs or the germ substances into the body for developing resistance to particular disease.
Question 2
Explain briefly the role of the following aids:
(i) Disinfectants
(ii) Penicillin
(iii) Sulphonamides
(iv) Vaccines
Solution 2
(i) Disinfectants: Disinfectants are chemicals applied on the spots to prevent the growth of microorganisms. It is a strong germ-killing substance. But it may cause harm to skin and body. Example: Lysol, DDT etc.
(ii) Penicillin: Penicillin is the first antibiotic discovered by Alexander Fleming. It is obtained from Penicillium notatum. It has a very  high therapeutic value and used against a number of gram positive bacteria including those causing Rheumatic fever , pneumonia , sore throat etc.
(iii) Sulphonamides: Sulphonamides popularly called sulpha drugs are a group of synthetic drugs which possess bacteriostatic property because they are able to block the enzyme system of bacteria.
(iv) Vaccines: Vaccine is a preparation consisting of dead or weakend microbes which help to build immunity in the human body .When introduced in an individual, a vaccine stimulates the production of antibodies against the particular type of germs.
Question 3
Fill in the blanks:
(i) Antibodies are ______.
(ii) Antibodies are produced on exposure to ______.
(iii) ______ is an antibiotic, used to treat diseases like pneumonia and ______.
Solution 3
(i) proteins that react with antigens or invading germs
(ii) antigen
(iii) Penicillin, rheumatic fever
Question 4
Mention if the following statements are true or false:
(i) DDT is a disinfectant.
(ii) Penicillin is a disinfectant.
(iii) Chemicals applied to spots and places to kill harmful microorganism are called disinefectants.
(iv) Our body can make only a limited variety of different antibodies.
(v) Salk vaccine is used against tuberculosis.
(vi) Active immunity means that antibodies are produced by the individual itself.
(vii) Passive immunity develops after having a disease.
(viii) WHO procures and provides blood to victims of war.
Solution 4
(i) True
(ii) False
(iii) True
(iv) True
(v) False
(vi) True
(vii) False
(viii)True

Chapter - Excercise

Solution 1

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