Dipole moment is the property of the system that measures the behavior of a molecule to be magnetic dipole. It is the measure of the magnetic properties of the molecule.
Dipole moment can be defined as the product of the magnitude of the charge and the distance of separation between the charges.
Dipoles are of following types:
- An electric dipole is a separation of positive and negative charges. The simplest example of this is a pair of electric charges of equal magnitude but opposite sign, separated by some (usually small) distance. A permanent electric dipole is called an electret.
- A magnetic dipole is a closed circulation of electric current. A simple example of this is a single loop of wire with some constant current flowing through it.
- A flow dipole is a separation of a sink and a source. In a highly viscous medium, a two-beater kitchen mixer causes a dipole flow field.
- An acoustic dipole is the oscillating version of it. A simple example is a dipole speaker.
- Any scalar or other field may have a dipole moment.