James Mill was a scottish economist who founded the school of classical economics along with David Ricardo. In his influential three volume work ‘History of British India’, he forwarded the viewpoint that all Asian societies were at a lower level of civilisation than Europe. That before the arrival of the British, India was ruled by Hindu and Muslim despots. Social life was plagued by religious strife, caste based discrimination and superstition. Mill propounded the notion that the period before British rule was of darkness and that the British rule represented all the forces of progress and civilisation.