Test cross is a cross between an organism whose genotype for a certain trait is unknown and an organism that is homozygous recessive for that trait so the unknown genotype can be determined from that of the offspring. This cross is used to determine whether the individual in question is heterozygous or homozygous for a certain allele. It can also used as a method to test for linkage, i.e. to estimate recombination fraction.
Reciprocal cross is hybridization involving a pair of crosses that reverse the sexes associated with each genotype. If a cross is made between A males and B females, then the reciprocal cross is between B males and A females. In genetics, a reciprocal cross is designed to test the role of parental sex on a given inheritance pattern.