what are 'p','s' and 'd' block elements?
The modern periodic table is divided into four main blocks s -block, p-block, d-block and f-block depending on the type of orbital that are being filled with exception of hydrogen and helium.
- The elements in which last electron enter the s-orbital of their outermost energy level are called s-block elements. The s-block consists of two groups, Group-1 and Group-2.
- The elements of Group-1 are called alkali metals and have ns1 as the general outer electronic configuration. The elements of Group-2 are called alkaline earth metals and have ns2 as the general outer electronic configuration.
- The elements in which last electron enter the p-orbital of their outermost energy level are called p-block elements. The p-block elements constitute elements belonging to group 13 to 18.
- The outermost electronic configuration of p-block elements varies from ns2np1 to ns2np6
- Elements in which the last electron enters d-orbitals of penultimate energy level constitute d-block elements. Elements of group 3 to 12 in the centre of periodic table constitute the d-block elements
- General outer electronic configuration of d-block elements is (n-1)d1-10 ns1-2
- Elements in which last electron enters f-orbitals are called f-block elements.