Question
Tue April 21, 2015 By: Apoorva Awasthy

Show the bonding in ammonium chloride formed by the addition of a chloride ion to a ammonium ion.I can make ammonium ion and chloride ion separately. Please help me to show how they combine to form ammonium chloride

Expert Reply
Prachi Sawant
Thu April 23, 2015

Ammonium ions (NH4+) are formed by the transfer of a hydrogen ion from the hydrogen chloride to the lone pair of electrons on the ammonia molecule. In the ammonium ion (NH4+) is formed, the fourth hydrogen is attached by a dative covalent bond. This is due to the fact that only the hydrogen's nucleus is transferred from the chlorine to the nitrogen. The hydrogen's electron is left behind on the chlorine to form a negative chloride ion.

Once the ammonium ion has been formed it is impossible to tell any difference between the dative covalent and the ordinary covalent bonds. Although the electrons are shown differently in the diagram, there is no difference between them in reality.

A co-ordinate bond is shown by an arrow. The arrow points from the atom donating the lone pair to the atom accepting it.

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