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1) The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord whereas the peripheral nervous system is composed of cranial and spinal nerves.
Peripheral nervous system is further divided into autonomic and somatic nervous system.
2) In the CNS, collections of neurons are called nuclei. In the PNS, collections of neurons are called ganglia.
3) In the CNS, collections of axons are called tracts. In the PNS, collections of axons are called nerves.
4) Myelination in the CNS is accomplished by oligodendrocytes, while in the PNS myelination is the job of Schwann cells
5) The major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the CNS is gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), while in the PNS it is glycine
6) The CNS is generally incapable of regeneration, while the PNS has some regenerative capacity.