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Mon July 30, 2012 By:

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Expert Reply
Tue July 31, 2012

Permanent hardness is hardness (mineral content) that cannot be removed by boiling. When this is the case, it is usually caused by the presence of calcium and magnesium sulphates and/or chlorides in the water, which become more soluble as the temperature rises. Despite the name, the hardness of the water can be easily removed using a water softener, or ion exchange column.



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