a) what is evolution? state darwin's theory of evolution? why was the theory of natural selection criticised?
Evolution literally means an unfolding. It refers to the gradual and continuous process by which the first and most primitive of living organisms have developed into the more advanced forms of today.
Objections to this theory:
i) Natural selection may be one of the main causes, but not the exclusive cause of structural modifications.
ii) It explains the survival of the fittest but not its arrival or cause.
iii) Only complete variations are useful in the struggle for existence but not those which are still to complete or just born.
iv) If nature selects the suitable forms and features, the theory is unable to explain the lingering existence of the vestigial organs.
v) It has been calculated that the time required by the slow process of natural selection to evolve the present day complex species, is much more than the age of the earth itself.