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What are the causes of low agriculture productivity in India?

Asked by Topperlearning User 5th June 2015, 8:46 AM
Answered by Expert

Causes of low agricultural productivity in India are categorised as:

  1. General factors
    1. Too much dependence on agriculture: A fast growing population and lack of alternate occupations is increasing the pressure on the land. More than half of the people depend on agriculture for their livelihood. This has led to fragmentation of holdings, disguised unemployment and other problems leading to low productivity.  
    2. Social atmosphere: Indian farmers are poor, ignorant, illiterate, superstitious, conservative, and bound by traditional customs and institutions which prevent them from adopting advanced technologies in the cultivation. Hence the productivity is low.
  2. Institutional factors
    1. Size of holding: Land holdings are either small or marginal, i.e., less than two hectares. The small size of the holdings is due to the law of inheritance, socio-cultural and economic factors. Moreover, these small holdings and fragmented fields are not suitable for modern methods of farming. 
    2. Land tenure system: The land tenure system in India is devastating, whether the zamindari system or in present times the taxation system. Under these situations it is almost difficult to raise productivity. 
  3. Technological factors
    1. Old techniques of production: The low productivity largely owe to the fact that Indian farmers cultivate using old techniques of production. They have not adopted the modern methods of technique of production.
    2. Inadequate irrigation facility: Most farmers still depend on the rainfall which is uncertain. They lack the means to avail the facilities of artificial irrigation. Nearly 42 percent of the total cultivated land is irrigated and the rest completely depends on rainfall. This type of Indian agriculture is called a gamble of monsoon. Due to inadequate irrigation facilities, the farmers are unable to grow more than one crop in a year. 
Answered by Expert 5th June 2015, 10:46 AM
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