the actual physical drift speed of electrons is very very low.then how come bulbs light up as soon as the circuit is switched on ?
The electrons that light the bulb in a flashlight do not have to first travel from the switch through 10 cm of wire to the filament. Rather, the electrons that light the bulb immediately after the switch is turned to on are the electrons that are present in the filament itself. As the switch is flipped, all mobile electrons everywhere begin marching; and it is the mobile electrons present in the filament whose motion are immediately responsible for the lighting of its bulb. As those electrons leave the filament, new electrons enter and become the ones that are responsible for lighting the bulb. The electrons are moving together much like the water in the pipes of a home move. When a faucet is turned on, it is the water in the faucet that emerges from the spigot. One does not have to wait a noticeable time for water from the entry point to your home to travel through the pipes to the spigot. The pipes are already filled with water and water everywhere within the water circuit is set in motion at the same time.
Hope this helps.
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