CBSE - X - Biology - Heredity and Evolution
Organic evolution refers to the origin and evolution of more complex organisms from simpler organisms.
Homologous Organs have the same basic structure and developmental origin. Example is: the seal's flipper, the bat's wings, the horse's foot, the cat's paw and the human hand
They perform different functions and look superficially different, but all of them have:
1. fundamentally similar plan,
2. approximately the same number of bones,
3. similar pattern of embryonic development
Homologous organs show common ancestry of the organisms. They also help us to understand the path of evolution taken by the diverging descendents.
Analogous Organs are organs, which perform the same function but are not similar in structural details and origin. Example is: the wings of a bird, a butterfly and a bat
Analogous organs show different ancestry and common habitat. They give us a clue in understanding the process of evolution of unrelated organisms to survive in similar habitats.
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