CBSE - X - Chemistry - Acids, Bases and Salts
Permanent hardness is hardness (mineral content) that cannot be removed by boiling. When this is the case, it is usually caused by the presence of calcium and magnesium sulphates and/or chlorides in the water, which become more soluble as the temperature rises. Despite the name, the hardness of the water can be easily removed using a water softener, or ion exchange column.
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