Militant nationalism arose in Europe in the latter part of the 19th century. It meant outright wars by the European countries to achieve their goals. Militant nationalism included two main features: first, the mechanism of maintaining great large standing armies and navies. This was accompanied by espionage, suspicion, fear and hatred, etc. Second, the existence of a powerful class of military and naval officers, headed by staff, who tended to dominate, especially at a time of political crisis, over the civilian authorities. Militant nationalism was caused by aggressive nationalism, economic competition and international tension.