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- Centrifugation:Centrifugation is a process that involves the use of the centripetal force for the separation of mixtures, used in industry and in laboratory settings. More-dense components of the mixture migrate away from the axis of the centrifuge, while less-dense components of the mixture migrate towards the axis
- Distillation:Distillation is a method of separating chemical substances based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. Distillation usually forms part of a larger chemical process, and is thus referred to as a unit operation. Commercially, distillation has a number of uses. It is used to separate crude oil into more fractions for specific uses such as transport, power generation and heating. Water is distilled to remove impurities, such as salt from sea water.
- Gravity separation:Gravity separation is an industrial method of separating two components from a suspension or any other homogeneous mixture where separating the components with gravity is sufficiently practical. All of the gravitational methods are common in the sense that they all use gravity as the dominant force. Often other methods are applied to make the separation faster and more efficient, such as flocculation, coagulation and suction
- Winnowing:Wind winnowing is an agricultural method developed by ancient cultures for separating grain from chaff. It is also used to remove weevils or other pests from stored grain. Threshing, the separation of grain or seeds from the husks and straw, is the step in the chaff-removal process that comes before winnowing.
- Evaporation:Evaporation is the process by which molecules in a liquid state (e.g. water) spontaneously become gaseous (e.g. water vapor). It is the opposite of condensation. Generally, evaporation can be seen by the gradual disappearance of a liquid when exposed to a significant volume of gas.Evaporation is an essential part of the water cycle. Solar energy drives evaporation of water from oceans, lakes, moisture in the soil, and other sources of water.
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