Homologous chromosomes are a pair of chromosomes, one inherited from each parent, that have corresponding gene sequences and that pair during meiosis.
Each chromosome pair contains genes for the same biological features, such as eye color, at the same locations (loci) on the chromosome. Each chromosome pair can contain the same gene (both genes for blue eyes) or different genes (one gene for blue eyes and one gene for brown eyes) for each feature.
Homologous chromosomes are two pairs of sister chromatids that have gone through the process of crossing over and meiosis. In this process the homologous chromosomes cross over (not the sister chromatids)each other and exchange genetic information. This causes each final cell of meiosis to have genetic information from both parents, a mechanism for genetic variation. The homologous chromosomes are similar in length.
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