planning is peformed by top level management
and this is pervasive too
So don't you think these are contrary to each other ?
No, it is not contradictory to each other because planning is required at all levels of management. Planning is not a function restricted to top level managers alone. But it is also done by managers at every level. The top level managers undertake the task such as formation of major plan and formulating over all polices. While the departmental managers form the plan for their respective departments and lower level departmental managers form plan to support the overall objectives and perform regular activities.
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