maam i wanted to know in detail that how does a zener diode work as a voltage regulator?
The function of a regulator is to provide a constant output voltage to a load connected in parallel with it in spite of the ripples in the supply voltage or the variation in the load current and the zener diode will continue to regulate the voltage until the diodes current falls below the minimum IZ(min) value in the reverse breakdown region.
It permits the current to flow in the forward direction as normal, but will also allow it to flow in the reverse direction when the voltage is above a certain value - the breakdown voltage known as the Zener voltage.
The Zener diode specially made to have a reverse voltage breakdown at a specific voltage. Its characteristics are very similar to common diodes. It is made from highly doped p and n type semiconductors.
In breakdown the voltage across the Zener diode is close to constant over a wide range of currents thus making it useful as a shunt voltage regulator.
The purpose of a voltage regulator is to maintain a constant voltage across a load regardless of variations in the applied input voltage and variations in the load current.
A typical Zener diode shunt regulator is shown in figure.
The resistor is selected so that when the input voltage is at VIN(min) and the load current is at IL(max) that the current through the Zener diode is at least Iz(min). Then for all other combinations of input voltage and load current the Zener diode conducts the excess current thus maintaining a constant voltage across the load.
The Zener conducts the least current when the load current is the highest and it conducts the most current when the load current is the lowest.
If there is no load resistance, shunt regulators can be used to dissipate total power through the series resistance and the Zener diode.
Shunt regulators have an inherent current limiting advantage under load fault conditions because the series resistor limits excess current.
A zener diode of break down voltage Vz is reverse connected to an input voltage source Vi across a load resistance RL and a series resistor RS. The voltage across the zener will remain steady at its break down voltage VZ for all the values of zener current IZ as long as the current remains in the break down region. Hence a regulated DC output voltage V0 = VZ is obtained across RL, whenever the input voltage remains within a minimum and maximum voltage
The type of regulations are
a) Line Regulation
In this type of regulation, series resistance and load resistance are fixed, only input voltage is changing. Output voltage remains the same as long as the input voltage is maintained above a minimum value.
Percentage of line regulation can be calculated by =
where V0 is the output voltage and VIN is the input voltage and ?V0 is the change in output voltage for a particular change in input voltage ?VIN.
b) Load Regulation
In this type of regulation, input voltage is fixed and the load resistance is varying. Output volt remains same, as long as the load resistance is maintained above a minimum value.
Percentage of load regulation =where is the null load resistor voltage and is the full load resistor voltage
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