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CBSE - X - Biology - Environment

how is petrol and coal formed?
how can these resourses be used carefully?

Asked by Anand Sarover 28th February 2015, 5:18 PM
Answered by Expert


Petrol and coal are the fossil fuels. They are formed millions of years ago.

Formation of coal:

  • Coal is formed from dead plants.
  • Dead plants get buried deep in the Earth.
  • The dead material gets converted into peat.
  • Peat gets buried deeper.
  • Under high pressure, the peat loses its moisture content and reduces in volume and gets converted into
  • lignite which is a soft brown coal.
  • As the lignite gets buried deeper in the Earth, due to high temperature and pressure, it becomes harder and convert into bituminous coal.
  • Bituminous coals when further exposed to high temperature and pressure convert into anthracite coal, which is the highest rank coal with high carbon content.

Formation of petrol:

  • The planktons, aquatic plants and animals when die get settled in the bottom of the sea.
  • Soon they get covered by the mud.
  • As more and more layers of mud settle, the lowermost layers of mud along with the dead material convert into a rock under high pressure and temperature.
  • The dead, decaying material which gets trapped in the rock, loses its water content and changes into crude oil which is high in carbon.
  • Since oil is denser than water, due to high pressure from below, it rises through the permeable rock.
Answered by Expert 2nd March 2015, 11:34 AM

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