CBSE - X - Biology - Environment
how is petrol and coal formed?
how can these resourses be used carefully?
Petrol and coal are the fossil fuels. They are formed millions of years ago.
Formation of coal:
- Coal is formed from dead plants.
- Dead plants get buried deep in the Earth.
- The dead material gets converted into peat.
- Peat gets buried deeper.
- Under high pressure, the peat loses its moisture content and reduces in volume and gets converted into
- lignite which is a soft brown coal.
- As the lignite gets buried deeper in the Earth, due to high temperature and pressure, it becomes harder and convert into bituminous coal.
- Bituminous coals when further exposed to high temperature and pressure convert into anthracite coal, which is the highest rank coal with high carbon content.
Formation of petrol:
- The planktons, aquatic plants and animals when die get settled in the bottom of the sea.
- Soon they get covered by the mud.
- As more and more layers of mud settle, the lowermost layers of mud along with the dead material convert into a rock under high pressure and temperature.
- The dead, decaying material which gets trapped in the rock, loses its water content and changes into crude oil which is high in carbon.
- Since oil is denser than water, due to high pressure from below, it rises through the permeable rock.
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