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From what I understand dominance to caused due to ablity of gene to produce a particular protein and recessive character is because the gene does not proteins. Whereas co-dominance is because proteins for 2 two characters are produced together. Then How does Incomplete domainance work. Please explain with respect the protein production.

Asked by sureshkalanjoor 8th July 2017, 8:47 PM
Answered by Expert
  • A gene has the instructions for making a specific protein.  Each protein does a particular job in the cell.
  • So, let’s say there is a gene involved in making a flower red.  It makes a protein whose job it is to make a red pigment. This gene comes in two forms or alleles, R and r. This flower has two copies of each of its genes.  So, in terms of red flower gene, the flower can be RR, Rr or rr.
  • Let’s say that both RR and Rr are red and rr is white.  If this is the case, then R is dominant over r because RR and Rr are the same colour.  We can also say that r is recessive to R for the same reason. Now, it won’t matter if r is recessive because it makes no protein, a broken protein or a version of the protein that makes white pigment.  In each case, r is recessive to R.
  • Let’s say instead that RR is red, Rr is pink and rr is white.  When this happens, we say that R is incompletely dominant over r.  But again, the reason why being Rr leads to a pink colour doesn’t matter in terms of this being incompletely dominant
  • One way Rr might end up pink is something called haploinsufficiency. The idea here is that one R only makes enough pigment to give a pink color and so you need both to be R to get red pigment.  In this case, r might make no protein or a defective one and you’d still get pink.
  • Another way incomplete dominance might work is if R makes a protein that makes red pigment and r makes one that makes a white pigment.  Both make a working protein but the white dilutes the red leading to pink. 
  • Incomplete dominance is a heterozygous genotype that creates an intermediate phenotype which is generally a mixture. In this case, only one allele (usually the normal or "wild type") of a single gene is expressed in a dosage dependent manner, which results in an intermediate phenotype.
  • Generally, in incomplete dominance the wild type allele makes a functional protein and the recessive allele either makes none or it does not have the correct function. When you breed 2 incomplete dominant alleles and if you think of this in terms of an enzyme giving 100%, 50% or 0% activity or the amount of red pigment, you can then start to see how you can get pink as well as red and white.
Answered by Expert 9th July 2017, 11:59 AM
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