Explain the reasons for the establishment of the United Nations.
Following are the reasons for the establishment of the United Nations:
Disastrous World Wars - The 20th century had seen two disastrous World Wars that had left in their wake a legacy of misery and depression. Millions of people had lost their lives or had been rendered disabled, homeless or unemployed. As a result, there was a realisation in the world community that another such destructive war would mark the end of civilisation as we know it, or even lead to the physical destruction of the world. Hence, a need was felt to establish an international organisation in order to maintain peace in the world.
Failure of the League of Nations - The League of Nations had largely been unsuccessful in maintaining peace after the First World War. It did have the mandate to operate, but the Member States had either refused to accept its authority or had shied away from contributing to its attempts at achieving collective security. As a result, a need was felt to form an international organisation which would be more powerful than the League of Nations.
Fear of the Third World War - The bitterness caused by the First World War had directly contributed to the onset of the Second World War. It was feared that the Second World War might further incite passions and lead to another, more destructive war. There was consensus in the world community in respect of avoiding that eventuality.
Division of the World into Two Blocs - After the conclusion of the Second World War, the world was divided into two ideological/political/military power blocs. The capitalist or democratic bloc was led by USA and its allies, whereas the Soviet bloc or the Communist bloc was led by USSR and its allied countries. Both blocs vied for supremacy and there was a general atmosphere of distrust and hostility. As a result, a need was felt to have a transparent and impartial organisation which would help these two blocs resolve their differences peacefully.
Destructive Weapons - The Second World War saw the use of the first atomic bomb in human history. The onset of the cold war had also led to an intense rivalry and armaments race between the two major power blocs. As a result, a need was felt for an organisation that would act as an assembly to counter this turn of events.
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