Even though the distance between C-C single bond is more (154pm) and between double is less (133pm), the pi bond in CC can be broken more easily. Why is it so? Shouldn't it be difficult to break?
Pi bonds are easier to break than sigma bonds because of two reasons.
- In the formation of σ bond, the end-on overlap of orbitals is more efficient than the side-on overlap of orbitals to form a pi bond.
- The electrons involved in a sigma bond are between the two nuclei. They are as closer to the nuclei and hence the nuclei have a strong grip on the electrons, therefore it is difficult to break a sigma bond.The electrons in a pi bond are further away from the nuclei. The nuclei experience a weaker attraction to the electrons; hence it is easier to break a pi bond.
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