2-methyl propanoic acid
An alcohol is a carbon chain with a hydroxide (OH-) attached. Name the carbon chain, using the suffix -anol. Place a number in front to indicate what carbon the hydroxide is attached to.
Ex: CH3CH2CH2(OH) is named 1-propanol.
A ketone is a carbon chain with an oxygen bonded to a middle carbon. Use the suffix -anone and use position numbers past propanone.
Ex: CH3CH2CH2C(=O)CH3 is named 2-pentanone.
An aldehyde is a carbon chain with an oxygen double bonded to the last/first carbon. Use the appropriate prefix for carbon chain and use the suffix -anal. No position number is required.
Ex: CH3CH(=O) is named ethanal.
A carboxylic acid is a carbon chain with an oxygen double bonded and a hydroxide bonded to the last/first carbon. Use the suffix -anoic acid. No position number is required.
Ex: CH3CH2C(=O)OH is named propanoic acid.