a) Insectivorous plants are said to be partly autotrophic and partly heterotrophic. These autotrophs supplement their nutritional requirements by trapping and digesting insects and other small animals. The trapped insects are killed and their proteins are digested by proteolytic enzymes secreted by the epidermis of the leaf. They can live without insects but their growth is stimulated when they digest the insects. The leaves of these plants are modified in several ways for trapping insects. Example: Pitcher plants, Drosera, Utricularia and Dionea.
The young seedling of santalum grows independently upto one year of age. After this, few roots develop haustoria, which make contact with roots of neighbouring trees. Viscum, a partial stem parasite has green leaves and thus is capable of manufacturing food, but is dependent on host plant for water supply.
b) Stroma is the homogenous matrix present within the membrane of chloroplast. Grana is the disc-like plates embedded in the stroma of the chloroplast. Grana are connected to each other by intergranal lamellae.
The grana of the chloroplast consists of pigment system made up of chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, carotine and xanthophyll while the stroma contains relevant enzymes required for the photosynthesis as well as DNA, RNA and cytochrome system.
c) Erythrocyte or red blood cell . It contains haemoglobin which helps to transport oxygen from lungs to tissues.
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