In the modern era, industrialisation generally means the growth of factories and factory production. However, if we look at the case of England, there was a large scale industrial production for international markets at the time when factories were not yet established. The merchants brought the raw material for cloth and took them to artisans and peasants in the countryside. The yarn was spun, woven, pleated and dyed. The merchant then collected the cloth and sold it in international markets. Thus, we cannot say that ndustrialisation mean only the growth of factory industries. Many historians now refer to this phase of industrialisation as proto-industrialisation.