different hormones in animals and their function ?
1) Pituitary Gland -
i) Growth hormone (GH) - Stimulates growth of all body tissues but especially skeletal muscle and bone.
ii) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) promotes normal development and activity of the thyroid gland.
iii) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids.
iv) Gonadotropins—follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) regulate the functions of the gonads in both sexes. FSH stimulates sex cell production; LH stimulates gonadal hormone production.
v) Prolactin (PRL) promotes milk production in humans.
vi) The neurohypophysis stores and releases two hypothalamic hormones:
- Oxytocin stimulates powerful uterine contractions, which trigger labor and delivery of an infant, and milk ejection in nursing women.
- Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) stimulates the kidney tubules to reabsorb and conserve water, resulting in small volumes of highly concentrated urine and decreased plasma osmolality.
2) Thyroid gland -
Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which increase the rate of cellular metabolism.
3) Parathyroid gland -
Parathyroid hormone (PTH), which causes an increase in blood calcium levels by targeting bone, the intestine, and the kidneys.
4) Adrenal Glands -
Hormones of adrenal cortex -
- Mineralocorticoids (primarily aldosterone) regulate sodium ion reabsorption and potassium ion excretion by the kidneys. Sodium ion reabsorption leads to water reabsorption, and increases in blood volume and blood pressure.
- Glucocorticoids (primarily cortisol) are important metabolic hormones that help the body resist stress by increasing blood glucose, fatty acid and amino acid levels, and blood pressure.
- Gonadocorticoids (mainly androgens) are produced in small amounts throughout life.
The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine). The catecholamines enhance and prolong the fight-or-flight response to short-term stressors.
The endocrine portion (pancreatic islets) of pancreas releases insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide.
Glucagon - when blood levels of glucose are low, it stimulates the liver to release glucose to the blood.
Insulin - is released when blood levels of glucose rise. It increases the rate of glucose uptake and metabolism by most body cells.
6) Ovaries -
Estrogens - Stimulate maturation of the female reproductive system and development of the secondary sex characteristics.
Progesterone - It works with estrogens in establishing the menstrual cycle.
7) Testes -
Testosterone - It promotes maturation of the male reproductive organs, development of secondary sex characteristics, and production of sperm by the testes.
8) Pineal gland -
Melatonin - It which influences daily rhythms and may have an antigonadotropic effect in humans.
9) Thymus gland -
thymosin and thymopoietins are important to the normal development of the immune response.
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