Proto-Industrialisation was the phase of industrialisation in Europe when industrial production was not exclusively factory based. During this period, town merchants began to procure goods from the countryside in order to escape the trade guild monopolies in cities. The poor peasants in the rural heartland eagerly went into business with the merchants since the enclosure movement had left the open fields out of their reach. By producing for the merchants, the peasants could cultivate their own small patches of land and yet could earn some supplementary income. This allowed them to make better use of the available family resources.