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CBSE Class 12-commerce Macroeconomics Aggregate Demand and its Components

Learn about Aggregate Demand and its Components from the CBSE Class 12 Commerce Economics chapter Income Determination by referring to the revision notes, sample papers, past years’ papers etc. at TopperLearning.

We call these actual or accounting values ex post measures of these items. These terms, however, can be used with a different connotation. Consumption may denote not what people have actually consumed in a given year but what they had planned to consume during the same period. Similarly, investment can mean the amount a producer plans to add to the inventory. In simple words, ex-ante depicts what has been planned, and ex-post depicts what has actually happened. In order to understand the determination of income, we need to know the planned values of different components of aggregate demand.