what is budding ? asexual reproduction sexual reproduction difference between and fission fragmentaion regeneration vegetative propagation spore formation plz explain in it ok question answer ncert all with answer ok? plz explain this chapter how do organisms reproduce plz explain in hindi ok not english plzzzzzzzz

Asked by urvashi sharma | 21st Nov, 2013, 05:40: PM

Expert Answer:



Binary Fission


  • Most common method in unicellular organisms.
  • Binary fission is the division of the parent cell.
  • When the organism matures, it grows in size. Its nucleus duplicates. Cytoplasm divides in the middle.
  • A single parent organism gives rise to two identical daughter organisms.
  • E.g. Amoeba, Paramoecium


Multiple Fission


  • The parent cell divides to produce many identical new individuals.
  • E.g. Plasmodium







  • A small outgrowth called bud arises on the parent body.
  • The bud grows and develops mouth and a ring of tentacles.
  • The bud breaks off from the parent body and develops into a new individual.
  • E.g. Hydra, Sponges, Corals






  • Regeneration is the ability of the organisms to generate lost or damaged parts.
  • It occurs by the process of growth and development.
  • The cells from the part that has been cut off begin to divide rapidly and form a ball of cells.
  • The cells move to their proper places where they have to form different organs and body parts.
  • They then change their shapes, get specialised and start forming various tissue types.
  • The tissues in turn form organs and the different body parts of the living organisms.
  • E.g. Lizard, Starfish, Planaria, Hydra


Spore formation

  • During spore formation, the parent plant or sporophyte produces hundreds of reproductive units called spores inside the sporangia.
  • When the spore case ruptures or bursts, the spores spread into the air.
  • When the air-borne spores land on food, soil or any suitable substratum under favourable conditions, they germinate and give rise to new organisms with many vegetative hyphae.
  • E.g. Rhizopus, Mucor, Aspergillus



  • The breaking up of body of organisms into two or more pieces or fragments on maturing, each of which subsequently can grow into a complete new organism is called fragmentation.  
  • Fragmentation is a method of rapid multiplication that occurs naturally on its own when the parent organism matures.
  • During fragmentation, the parent organism undergoes accidental breakage into small pieces or fragments.
  • Each fragment then develops into a new individual plant.
  • E.g. Spirogyra, Oscillatoria, Hydrilla


Answered by Sheetal Kolte | 21st Nov, 2013, 06:47: PM

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