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JEE Class main Answered

what is azeotropic mixture, pls explain in simple words and in depth
Asked by bhyogita884 | 12 Jul, 2022, 02:55: AM
Expert Answer

Dear student,

 An azeotrope is a mixture of two or more pure compounds (chemicals) in such a ratio that its composition cannot be changed by simple distillation.  This is because when an azeotrope is boiled, the resulting vapor has the same ratio of constituents as the original mixture of liquids. As the composition is unchanged by boiling, azeotropes are also known as constant boiling mixtures or boil at constant temperature.

According to Raoult's law, when several substances are mixed with, it is observed that the solvent's partial vapor pressure is equivalent to or similar to the vapor pressure of the pure solvent multiplied by the mole fraction in the solution. However, azeotropes exist in a solution at only a specific boiling point for any specific components. Therefore, the azeotropes do not conform to Raoult's law.

The azeotropes are considered to be binary solutions. Only one single solute and one single solvent are utilized in the mixture. For example, azeotrope ethyl alcohol contains a mixture of ethyl alcohol and water.

There are two types of azeotropes called minimum boiling azeotrope and maximum boiling azeotrope.

The solutions which show a large positive deviation from Raoult’s law form minimum boiling azeotrope at a specific composition. 

The solutions which show a large negative deviation from Raoult’s law form maximum boiling azeotrope at a specific composition.

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