what are the charecterstics of the fundamental particles?
describe how the fundamental particles are arranged in atom.
describe the formation of the bond between sodium and chlorine giving sodium chloride.

Asked by chauhanayush706 | 14th May, 2017, 12:05: PM

Expert Answer:

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Properties of Electrons

  • An electron, which is denoted as e-, is the fundamental particle with a negative charge.
  • Its properties are independent of the gas in the discharge tube.
  • The mass of an electron is negligible and its charge is -1.
  • The mass of an electron is extremely small. It is of the mass of a hydrogen atom (9.108 ´ 10-28 g) and so its mass is considered almost negligible. (Hydrogen is an atom of the lowest mass). Since the mass of a hydrogen atom is 1 u, we can say that the relative mass of an electron is u.
  • The absolute mass of an electron is 9 ×10-28 grams.
  • Its charge is 1 unit negative charge, i.e. 1.602 ´ 10-19 coulombs.
  • The tiny electrons revolve around the nucleus of the atom in specific orbits or shells.

 

 

Properties of Protons

  • Proton is denoted as p+, and is the fundamental particle with a positive charge.
  • The mass of a proton is taken as 1 unit and its charge as +1.
  • The mass of a proton was calculated as being equal to the mass of an atom of hydrogen, i.e. 1.672 ´ 10-24 g. The relative mass of a proton is 1 u.
  • If we compare the mass of a proton with that of an electron, then the mass of a proton is 1840 times that of an electron.
  • The absolute mass of a proton is 1.6 ´ 10-24 grams.
  • The charge of a proton is equal and opposite to the charge of an electron, i.e. 1.602 × 10-19 coulomb of positive charge.

 The formation of cathode rays and anode rays on passing an electric current through the gases at a very low pressure shows that an atom is divisible. It is made up of smaller particles.

 

Properties of Neutrons

  • Neutron is denoted as n, and is the fundamental particle with no charge.
  • The mass of the neutron is slightly more than that of proton. i.e. 1.676 × 10-24 g, compared to 1.672 × 10-24 g. The relative mass of a neutron is 1 u.
  • The absolute mass of a neutron is 1.6 × 10-24 grams.
  • Neutron is electrically neutral. It has no charge.
  • Neurons of the atoms lead to the formation of isotopes.

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Topperlearning Team.

Answered by Vaibhav Chavan | 15th May, 2017, 11:03: AM

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