What are somen of the most important reactions to be learnt for preparation of organic chemistry?

Asked by jaideepsnatu | 12th Jul, 2019, 12:17: PM

Expert Answer:

Dear Student,
Every name reaction mentioned in NCERT book is imporatnt from board point of view.
Please restrict yourself to NCERT for preparing the exams. That will be helpful. Refer other books for reference only.
 
Some important chemical reactions:
 

Name of the reaction

Substrate

Reactant

Intermidiate

Reaction condition (temperature or pressure or catalyst)

Product

Reactions of Phenols: 

Kolbe’s Reaction

Phenols  

NaOH

Phenoxide ion  

1)      CO2

2)      H+

Ortho hydroxybenzoic acid  

Reimer-Tiemann  Reaction 

 

Phenols  

 

chloroform in the presence of NaOH

substituted benzal chloride  

Alkaline hydrolysis

salicylaldehyde  

Reactions of Ethers:

 

Williamson Synthesis

alkyl halide

R-X

sodium alkoxide.

R’-ONa+

SN2 mechanism

 

Ethers

R-O-R’

Friedel-Crafts alkylation 

Anisole

Methyl chloride

 

1)Anhydrous AlCl3

2) CS2 

 2-Methoxy tolune

And

4-Methoxy tolune

Friedel-Crafts acylation 

 

Anisole

 

Acyl chloride

 

 

1)Anhydrous AlCl3

2) CS2 

2-Methoxy acetophenone

and

4-Methoxy acetophenone

Reactions of Aldehydes Ketones and Carboxylic acids

Rosenmund Reduction

Acyl chloride

H2

 

palladium catalyst and barium sulphate

Aldehydes

Stephen Reaction

 

 

Alkyl nitriles

R-C≡N 

stannous chloride

SnCl2

Imine

 

HCl/H3O+

Aldehyde

RCHO 

Etard Reaction ( Use of Chromyl Chloride)

Tolune    

Chromyl chloride 

a chromium complex   

CS2

Oxidation 

benzaldehyde   

Gatterman –Koch Reaction

Benzene  

CO and HCl  

 

AlCl3 or CuCl 

benzaldehyde or p-tolualdehyde   

Haloform reaction

Methyl Ketone or Acetaldehyde  

sodium hypohalite

NaOX

 

 

sodium salts of corresponding acids and Haloform   

Aldol Condensation

 

Aldehydes and ketones with at least one α-hydrogen 

dilute alkali

β-hydroxy aldehydes (aldol) or β-hydroxy ketones (ketol)

 

HCl/H3O+

α,β-Unsaturated aldehyde

or

α,β-Unsaturated Ketone

Cannizzaro reaction

 

Aldehydes with no α-hydrogen

2 

concentrated alkali.

 

 

Heat

Alcohol

 

and

carboxylic acid salt

  

 

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Sandmeyer’s reaction

 

a primary aromatic amine

  

sodium nitrite NaNO2 cold aqueous mineral acid

a diazonium salt   

  

Aryl halide 

Grove’s Process

Alcohol

  

dry hydrogen chloride gas  

 

Anhydrous ZnCl2.

Haloalkane

 

Answered by Ravi | 12th Jul, 2019, 06:09: PM

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