sir please explain me the Hertz"s experiment

Asked by ayush singh | 30th Sep, 2011, 12:00: AM

Expert Answer:

  • The first proof of the existence of electromagnetic wave came from Hertz's experiment.

          

 

  • An apparatus similar to the one illustrated was used.  A high voltage power source caused sparks to oscillate across the gap as shown.  Each visible spark is actually a series of many small sparks, jumping rapidly back and forth (oscillating) between the terminals.
  • The size of the metal plates attached to the spheres from which the sparks are produced, controls the frequency of the sparks produced.
  • A loop of wire held near the oscillating spark, had a spark jump across the air gap between the ends of the wire whenever a spark jumped across the high voltage (induction coil) spark gap.
  • Hertz reasoned that as the spark jumps back and forth across the gap of the induction coil, it must set up rapidly changing electric and magnetic fields.  According to Maxwell's theory, these changes propagate through space as electromagnetic waves.  Upon arrival at the loop of wire, the changing electric and magnetic fields produce a potential difference across the ends of the wire loop.  If the potential is large enough, a spark jumps across the gap.
  • The wave produced has the same frequency as the sparks.   This frequency was about 1.0 X 109 Hz.
  • Hertz showed that the speed of the waves were 3.00 X 108 m/s.
  • Hertz also showed that these waves had many of the usual properties of light.
  • Maxwell predicted the properties of electromagnetic waves.
    • Produced whenever electric charges are accelerated
      • accelerating charges lose energy which is carried away as electromagnetic waves
    • If an electric charge is accelerated in a periodic fashion, the frequency of the electromagnetic waves equals the frequency of the oscillations of the charge.
    • All electromagnetic waves travel in a vacuum at 3.00 X 108 m/s, and obey the universal wave equation.
    • Electromagnetic waves exhibit:
      • interference, diffraction, polarization, refraction, etc.
      • linear and angular momentum.
      • Intensities proportional to the square of the magnitude of the electric (or magnetic) field amplitude, and to the square of the frequency.
    • Electromagnetic waves consist of oscillating electric and magnetic fields in a constant phase relation perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of propagation as illustrated below.
      • Notice how the right hand rule applies to this diagram.   Point your fingers in the direction of motion of the wave.  Twist your arm so that you can curl your fingers into the direction of the electric field.  Your thumb points in the direction of the magnetic field.

       

  • Hertz called the waves radio waves
  • People like Marconi used these waves to build the first radios.

 

 

  •  
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      • linear and angular momentum.

Answered by  | 1st Oct, 2011, 01:02: PM

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