Sir/Madam, I Want Everything But The Summary Of This Topic Namely: parts,Functions,Names,Position Labelling of brain,Nevous System,Neurons Etc. Please.

Asked by  | 15th Sep, 2012, 09:33: PM

Expert Answer:

The central nervous system is made up of 
  • spinal cord and
  • brain

The spinal cord

  • conducts sensory information from the peripheral nervous system (both somatic and autonomic) to the brain
  • conducts motor information from the brain to our various effectors
  • serves as a minor reflex center

The brain

  • receives sensory input from the spinal cord as well as from its own nerves (e.g., olfactory and optic nerves)
  • devotes most of its volume to processing its various sensory inputs and initiating appropriate — and coordinated — motor outputs.


The brain is made of three main parts: the forebrain, midbrain, and hindbrain. The forebrain consists of the cerebrum, thalamus, and hypothalamus (part of the limbic system). The midbrain consists of the tectum and tegmentum. The hindbrain is made of the cerebellum, pons and medulla.
The cerebrum: The cerebrum or cortex is the largest part of the human brain, associated with higher brain function such as thought and action. The cerebral cortex is divided into four sections, called "lobes": the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe, and temporal lobe.
  • Frontal Lobe- associated with reasoning, planning, parts of speech, movement, emotions, and problem solving
  • Parietal Lobe- associated with movement, orientation, recognition, perception of stimuli
  • Occipital Lobe- associated with visual processing
  • Temporal Lobe- associated with perception and recognition of auditory stimuli, memory, and speech

A deep furrow divides the cerebrum into two halves, known as the left and right hemispheres.


Thalamus- It is a large mass of gray matter deeply situated in the forebrain at the topmost portion of the diencephalon. The structure has sensory and motor functions. Almost all sensory information enters this structure where neurons send that information to the overlying cortex. Axons from every sensory system (except olfaction) synapse here as the last relay site before the information reaches the cerebral cortex.


The Hypothalamus- It is a part of the diencephalon, ventral to the thalamus. The structure is involved in functions including homeostasis, emotion, thirst, hunger, circadian rhythms, and control of the autonomic nervous system. In addition, it controls the pituitary.

Midbrain- It includes the tectum and tegmentum. It is involved in functions such as vision, hearing, eyemovement, and body movement. The anterior part has the cerebral peduncle, which is a huge bundle of axons traveling from the cerebral cortex through the brain stem and these fibers (along with other structures) are important for voluntary motor function.

The cerebellum - The cerebellum, or "little brain", is similar to the cerebrum in that it has two hemispheres and has a highly folded surface or cortex. This structure is associated with regulation and coordination of movement, posture, and balance.


Pons- It is involved in motor control and sensory analysis. It has parts that are important for the level of consciousness and for sleep. Some structures within the pons are linked to the cerebellum, thus are involved in movement and posture.


Medulla Oblongata- This structure is the caudal-most part of the brain stem, between the pons and spinal cord. It is responsible for maintaining vital body functions, such as breathing and heartrate.


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Answered by  | 17th Sep, 2012, 07:27: AM

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