Please tell me about the construction of dynamo

Asked by Manoj | 9th Apr, 2013, 07:34: AM

Expert Answer:

An 'AC generator ' or 'dynamo ' is a machine which produces AC from mechanical energy. Actually, it is an alternator which converts one form of energy into another.


AC Dynamo is based on the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction. That is, when the relative orientation between the coil and the magnetic field changes, the flux linked with the coil changes and this induces a current in the coil.

As the armature coil rotates, the angle Q changes continuously. Therefore, the flux linked with the coil changes.


= NBA cos q

= NBA cos wt

where q is the flux linked with the coil, N is the number of turns in the coil, A is the area enclosed by each three of the coil and B is the strength of the magnetic field.

= - NBA (-sin wt )w

E = + NBA w sin wt

e = e o sinwt. This is the EMF Supplied by the A.C. generator



ABCD is the armature coil consisting of a large number of turns of the insulated copper wire wound over a laminated soft iron core I. The coil can be rotated about the central axis.


N and S are the pole pieces of a strong electromagnet in which the armature coil is rotated.

Slip rings

R1 and R2 are two hollow metallic rings to which both ends of the armature coil are connected. These rings rotate with the rotation of the coil.


Brushes B1 and B2 are two flexible metal plates or carbon rods. These brushes are used to pass current from the coil to the external load resistance.


To start with, suppose the plane of the coil is perpendicular to the plane of the paper in which the magnetic field is applied, with AB at the front and CD at the back, the flux linked with the coil is maximum in this position. As the coil rotates clockwise, AB moves inwards and CD moves outwards. According to Fleming 's right hand rule, the current induced in AB is from A to B, and in CD, from C to D. In the external circuit, current flows from B2 to B1. After half of the rotation of the coil, AB is at the back and CD is at the front. Therefore, AB starts moving outwards and CD inwards. The current induced in AB is from B to A, and in CD, from D to C. The current flows from B1 to B2 through the external circuit. We therefore see that the induced current in the external circuit changes direction after every half rotation of the coil, and hence is alternating in nature.

Answered by  | 9th Apr, 2013, 11:34: AM

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