CBSE Class 8 Answered
India is known for its rich biodiversity. The term ‘biodiversity’ is used to describe various life forms which are found on the Earth. This includes flora, fauna and various ecosystems in which species live or depend on one another.
The Indian forests were greatly damaged during the colonial period. The British brought many areas under cultivation to earn revenues. The expansion of railways led to the destruction of huge chunks of forests. Reckless mining and commercial forestry have further led to the destruction of forests. Destruction of forests adversely affected the habitat of wildlife.
In the post-independence period, the expansion of cultivation continued. This also led to the destruction of forests and consequently the depletion of various species.
Wild animals have been hunted because of their hides and teeth.
The Government of India has formulated various plans to protect the Indian wildlife.
- In 1972, the Indian Wildlife Act was passed. In this Act, various provisions were made to preserve the endangered species of animals by banning hunting, restricting trade in wildlife and providing legal protection to wildlife habitats.
- As a result, many wildlife sanctuaries and national parks were established by the state and the Central Government to preserve the habitat of many wild animals.
- Many animals such as tigers, one-horned rhinoceros, saltwater crocodile, black buck and snow leopard have been give protection against hunting and trading in the country.