please ans.......

Asked by kirtichawla94 | 25th Jul, 2009, 09:45: AM

Expert Answer:

Humans :

1) Pituitary Gland - 

i) Growth hormone (GH) - Stimulates growth of all body tissues but especially skeletal muscle and bone.

ii) Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) promotes normal development and activity of the thyroid gland.

iii) Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex to release corticosteroids.

iv)  Gonadotropins—follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) regulate the functions of the gonads in both sexes. FSH stimulates sex cell production; LH stimulates gonadal hormone production.

v) Prolactin (PRL) promotes milk production in humans.

vi) The neurohypophysis stores and releases two hypothalamic hormones:

  • Oxytocin stimulates powerful uterine contractions, which trigger labor and delivery of an infant, and milk ejection in nursing women. 
  • Antidiuretic hormone (ADH) stimulates the kidney tubules to reabsorb and conserve water, resulting in small volumes of highly concentrated urine and decreased plasma osmolality.


2) Thyroid gland - 

Thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), which increase the rate of cellular metabolism.


3)  Parathyroid gland -

Parathyroid hormone (PTH), which causes an increase in blood calcium levels by targeting bone, the intestine, and the kidneys.


4) Adrenal Glands -

Hormones of adrenal cortex -


  • Mineralocorticoids (primarily aldosterone) regulate sodium ion reabsorption and potassium ion excretion by the kidneys. Sodium ion reabsorption leads to water reabsorption, and increases in blood volume and blood pressure. 
  • Glucocorticoids (primarily cortisol) are important metabolic hormones that help the body resist stress by increasing blood glucose, fatty acid and amino acid levels, and blood pressure.
  • Gonadocorticoids (mainly androgens) are produced in small amounts throughout life.

The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines (epinephrine and norepinephrine). The catecholamines enhance and prolong the fight-or-flight response to short-term stressors.


5) Pancreas

The endocrine portion (pancreatic islets) of pancreas releases insulin, glucagon, somatostatin and pancreatic polypeptide.

Glucagon - when blood levels of glucose are low, it stimulates the liver to release glucose to the blood.

Insulin -  is released when blood levels of glucose rise. It increases the rate of glucose uptake and metabolism by most body cells.


6) Ovaries - 

Estrogens -  Stimulate maturation of the female reproductive system and development of the secondary sex characteristics.

Progesterone - It works with estrogens in establishing the menstrual cycle.


7) Testes -

Testosterone - It promotes maturation of the male reproductive organs, development of secondary sex characteristics, and production of sperm by the testes.


8) Pineal gland -

Melatonin - It which influences daily rhythms and may have an antigonadotropic effect in humans.


9) Thymus gland -

thymosin and thymopoietins are important to the normal development of the immune response.


Kindly post each of the remaining questions as separate queries.

Answered by  | 26th Jul, 2009, 12:58: PM

Queries asked on Sunday & after 7pm from Monday to Saturday will be answered after 12pm the next working day.