How can we find the type of hybridization in a compound formed?

Asked by pragati nargotra | 18th Dec, 2013, 08:23: PM

Expert Answer:

Hybridization is defined as the mixing of the atomic orbitals belonging to the same atom but having slightly different energies so that the same number of new orbitals are formed which have equivalent energy and identical shapes. These new orbitals are called as hybrid orbitals.

Depending on the combination of atomic orbitals the hybridization may be of various types as; sp3 (1s and 3p orbitals combine to form 4 sp3 hybrid orbital.), sp2, sp etc.

 

=> sp- hybridization arises when one s and one p orbital combine to form two sp-orbital with 180° bond angle and linear shape to the molecule. The percentage of s and p are 50 %. Ex: C2H2 (acetylene)

 

=> sp2 hybridization arises when one s and two p orbitals combine to form three sp2 hybrid orbitals with bond angle of 120° and triangular planner shape where the s-character is 33.33% . Ex: C2H4 (Ethylene)

 

=> sp3 hybridization arises when 1s and 3p orbitals combine to form 4 sp3 hybrid orbital with bond angle 109°''28' and shape as tetrahedral where the s-character is 25% . Ex C2H6 (Ethane)

 

The type of hybridization can also be known by the number of pi bonds present on the atom.

If no pi bonds are present - it is sp3 hybridized, if 1 pi bond is present - it is sp2 hybridized and if two pi bonds are present - it is sp hybridized.

 

Answered by Hanisha Vyas | 20th Dec, 2013, 02:58: PM

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