explain chromatography and distillation ?

Asked by  | 15th Feb, 2012, 12:39: PM

Expert Answer:

Distillation is a method of separating chemical substances based on differences in their volatilities in a boiling liquid mixture. Distillation usually forms part of a larger chemical process, and is thus referred to as a unit operation.

Commercially, distillation has a number of uses. It is used to separate crude oil into more fractions for specific uses such as transport, power generation and heating. Water is distilled to remove impurities, such as salt from sea water. Air is distilled to separate its components - notably oxygen, nitrogen and argon - for industrial use. Distillation of fermented solutions has been used since ancient times to produce distilled beverages with a higher alcohol content.
Chromatography (from Greek :chroma, colour and :"graphein" to write) is the collective term for a family of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures. It involves passing a mixture dissolved in a "mobile phase" through a stationary phase, which separates the analyte to be measured from other molecules in the mixture and allows it to be isolated.

Chromatography may be preparative or analytical. Preparative chromatography seeks to separate the components of a mixture for further use (and is thus a form of purification). Analytical chromatography normally operates with smaller amounts of material and seeks to measure the relative proportions of analytes in a mixture. The two are not mutually exclusive.

Answered by  | 15th Feb, 2012, 02:00: PM

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