chapter life process

 

Give atleast seven function of kidney,heart,lung,tomac small instetine.

Asked by amolshukal.2001 | 10th Jan, 2018, 09:43: PM

Expert Answer:

Organs

Functions

Kidney

  • Regulation of blood volume
  • Regulation of blood pressure
  • Regulation of the pH of the blood
  • Regulation of the ionic composition of blood
  • Production of red blood cells
  • Synthesis of Vitamin D
  • Excretion of waste products and foreign substances

Heart

  • Supply of oxygenated blood to all parts of the body.
  • Keeps both of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood separate in order to avoid contamination of the pure blood. 
  • Heart valves prevent the backflow of blood or regulate the flow of blood in a single direction.

Lungs

  • Absorbing oxygen from the air through the process of inhalation, the lungs bring oxygen into the bloodstream, which carries oxygen to the rest of the body.
  • The cells of the body release carbon dioxide as they use oxygen. This is carried back to the lungs by the veins.
  • The carbon dioxide leaves the lungs when the lungs exhale.
  • Most of the cells in the lungs are called epithelial cells. These line the airways and produce mucus, which lubricates and protects the lungs.

Stomach

  • It stores food and prepares it for further digestion.
  • It plays a role in protein digestion.
  • Gastric glands called chief cells secrete pepsinogen. Pepsinogen is converted to the enzyme pepsin in the presence of hydrochloric acid.
  • Hydrochloric acid is secreted by parietal cells in the stomach lining. The pepsin then digests large proteins into smaller proteins called peptides. 
  • To protect the stomach lining from the acid, a third type of cell secretes mucus that lines the stomach cavity.
  • The three layers of muscles in the walls of the stomach contract and relax causing the churning movement of food. Churning also helps in proper mixing of food with gastric juices.
  • The stomach releases food into the small intestine in a controlled and regulated manner.

Small intestine

  • The small intestine serves both for digestion and for absorption. It receives two digestive juices—the bile and pancreatic juices—in the duodenum.
  • Bile juice makes acidic food alkaline for the pancreatic enzymes to act on it.
  • Bile breaks them into small globules so that enzymes can act on them easily.
  • Intestinal glands are present in the walls of the ileum which secrete intestinal juice. Intestinal juice contains peptidase, maltase, sucrase, lactase and lipase. These enzymes complete the process of converting proteins to amino acids, complex carbohydrates into glucose and fats to fatty acids.
  • Food is absorbed by the blood vessels in the small intestine.
  • Amino acids and simple sugars are absorbed through the thin epithelium of the villi. They reach the blood capillaries and finally enter the blood circulation to reach the liver through the hepatic portal vein.
  • Fatty acids and glycerol are absorbed into the lymph vessel or lacteal to enter the lymphatic system. It ultimately empties its contents into the bloodstream.

Answered by Sheetal Kolte | 11th Jan, 2018, 12:02: PM

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